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MR-Based Electrical Property Reconstruction Using Physics-Informed Neural Networks

Electrical properties (EP), such as permittivity and conductivity, dictate the interactions between electromagnetic waves and biological tissue. EP are biomarkers for pathology characterization, such as cancer. Imaging of EP helps monitor the health of the tissue and can provide important information in therapeutic procedures. Magnetic resonance (MR)-based electrical properties tomography (MR-EPT) uses MR measurements, such as the magnetic transmit field B1+, to reconstruct EP. These reconstructions rely on the calculations of spatial derivatives of the measured B1+. However, the numerical approximation of derivatives leads to noise amplifications introducing errors and artifacts in the reconstructions. Recently, a supervised learning-based method (DL-EPT) has been introduced to reconstruct robust EP maps from noisy measurements. Still, the pattern-matching nature of this method does not allow it to generalize for new samples since the network’s training is done on a limited number of simulated data pairs, which makes it unrealistic in clinical applications. Thus, there is a need for a robust and realistic method for EP map construction.

FlexThrough: a recirculation mechanism for point of care, centrifugal disk-based microfluidic devices

One of the key limitations for devices used in point-of-care diagnostics (POCD) is their limit of detection; patient samples used for POCD devices often contain too low of the target analyte. FlexThrough is a newly developed, centrifugal disk (CD)-based method that utilizes the entirety of a liquid sample via recirculation of the sample for efficient mixing as it iteratively passes through the system.

LaserPack: A burstable liquid storage package for biological material storage and valve substitution

The LaserPack is an easily manufacturable solution for liquid storage in point-of-care devices that is low-cost, has dimensional variability, and is reproducible, while also serving as a valve for liquid access in microfluidic devices. Current liquid storage techniques rely on lyophilization, or freeze-drying, to minimize occupied space, but lyophilization is not applicable to all liquid reagents nor is it optimal for some biological components of point-of-care devices.

Rapid optical detection system for SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogens

Researchers at UC Irvine have developed an optical detection system for SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogens that features improvements in screening time, cost, sensitivity, and practicality. As vaccine availability, economic pressure, and mental health considerations has gradually returned society to pre-pandemic activities that require frequent and close interactions, it is imperative that SARS-CoV-2 detection systems remain effective.

Smart Insulin Leak Detector

Brief description not available

Universal Patient Monitoring

Sensor-based patient monitoring is a promising approach to assess risk, which can then be used by healthcare clinics to focus efforts on the highest-risk patients without having to spend the time manually assessing risk. For example, pressure ulcers/injuries are localized damage to the skin and/or underlying tissue that usually occur over a bony prominence and are most common to develop in individuals who have low-mobility, such as those who are bedridden or confined to a wheelchair and consequently are attributed to some combination of pressure, friction, shear force, temperature, humidity, and restriction of blood flow and are more prevalent in patients with chronic health problems. Sensor-based patient monitoring can be tuned to the individual based on the relative sensor readings. However, existing sensor-based monitoring techniques, such as pressure monitoring, are one-off solutions that are not supported by a comprehensive system which integrates sensing, data collection, storage, data analysis, and visualization. While traditional monitoring solutions are suitable for its intended purpose, these approaches require substantial re-programming as the suites of monitoring sensors change over time.

An accessible lab on a chip platform for single cell differentiation of cancerous tumors

Researchers at UC Irvine have developed a novel, machine learning-assisted biochip for rapid, affordable, and practical analysis of single cell tumor heterogeneity. The technology’s low cost and ease of manufacture makes it an optimal point-of-care diagnostic in developing countries, where early cancer detection is severely lacking.

Redesigned vaginal speculum for enhanced patient comfort and physician use

Researchers at UC Irvine have redesigned the vaginal speculum, a medical device routinely used for pap smears, and other medical procedures that involve inspection of the vaginal canal (i.e. IUD insertions, STD testing, and hysterectomies). The novel design addresses several patient discomforts associated with currently used speculums and is more time- and cost-effective for health professionals.

Systems For Pulse-Mode Interrogation Of Wireless Backscatter Communication Nodes

Measurement of electrical activity in nervous tissue has many applications in medicine, but the implantation of a large number of sensors is traditionally very risky and costly. Devices must be large due to their necessary complexity and power requirements, driving up the risk further and discouraging adoption. To address these problems, researchers at UC Berkeley have developed devices and methods to allow small, very simple and power-efficient sensors to transmit information by backscatter feedback. That is, a much more complex and powerful external interrogator sends an electromagnetic or ultrasound signal, which is modulated by the sensor nodes and reflected back to the interrogator. Machine learning algorithms are then able to map the reflected signals to nervous activity. The asymmetric nature of this process allows most of the complexity to be offloaded to the external interrogator, which is not subject to the same constraints as implanted devices. This allows for larger networks of nodes which can generate higher resolution data at lower risks and costs than existing devices.

Percutaneous Heart Valve Delivery System

Researchers at University of California, Irvine have developed a novel percutaneous heart valve delivery system for coordinated delivery, positioning, repositioning, and/or percutaneous retrieval of percutaneously implanted heart valves. This system enables optimal placement of the transcatheter heart valve and may thereby significantly reduce the risk of paravalvular aortic regurgitation, myocardial infarction, or ischemia related to improper positioning.

A distensible wire mesh for a cardiac sleeve

Researchers at University of California, Irvine have developed a novel distensible wire mesh that can be used in the heart surround sleeve component of a whole heart assist device. This wire mesh design enables the device to collapse and expand reversibly for a variety of uses, such as during the delivery process of the whole heart assist device as well as for allowing the device to contract and expand to physically pump the heart.

System for Transcatheter Grabbing and Securing the Native Mitral Valve’s Leaflet to a Prosthesis

Researchers at UC Irvine have developed an assembly of components that work together as a system for first grabbing, and then securing the native mitral valve’s leaflet to a prosthesis via transcatheter means.

Method to Improve the Accuracy of an Independently Acquired Flow Velocity Field Within a Chamber, Such as a Heart Chamber

Currently available techniques used to measure velocimetry within chambers, such as heart chambers, are prone to error due to the inherent limitations of imaging and computational modalities. UC Irvine researchers have developed a novel method that significantly improves the accuracy of velocimetry techniques inside a chamber regardless of the modality.

Physical simulation model for placement of deep brain stimulator electrodes

Success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) procedures relies heavily on the precise placement of electrodes. However, current options for learning this specialized procedure are limited to observing live cases, listening to audio recordings, or watching computer simulation videos. Researchers at UC Irvine have developed a first-of-its-kind, physical simulation model that allows for easy, convenient, and realistic demonstration of DBS electrode placement to benefit both medical professionals and patients alike.

PMUT for Blood Pressure Monitoring

Cardiovascular disease is among the leading causes of death for citizens in affluent nations, and the most significant cause of morbidity in those with cardiovascular disease is hypertension. Often called the “silent killer” because it has few clinical signs in its early stages, elevated blood pressure is often in an advanced stage before it is treated, leading to a substantially worse prognosis than if it had been detected earlier.In order to address this problem, researchers at UC Berkeley have developed a wearable device which continuously monitors diastolic blood pressure, transmitting data to a portable device such as a cell phone, where it can be stored and analyzed. The device utilizes piezoelectric transducers to perform the measurement, which allows the wearable device to remain small while containing a large number of sensors in order to reduce noise.

Reducing Risk Of Aerosol-Transmitted Infection From Dental Ultrasonic Instrumentation

Pathogenic transmission of dental aerosol created by ultrasonic scaling is considered a major concern during dental procedures. Researchers at UC Irvine have developed a novel tool/method to address this concern by removing the created aerosol at the source.

New Device to Test for Pulmonary Function for 21st Century Care

Prof. Mona Eskandari, whose research is known for seminal strides in experimental characterization and computational modeling of lung structural mechanics using novel techniques developed in her lab, has discovered a new method for measuring pulmonary function. It works by analyzing the change in temporal pressure while a patient is holding their breath. The measurement device is simple, comfortable and error-free for the patient to self-administer. Algorithms are used to transform the detailed lung data collection into actionable metrics for early detection capabilities for medical intervention and prevention. The discovery could provide more accessible, detailed, timely, and actionable data on lung function compared to conventional and currently used methods. Fig 1: The medical device prototype being tested in the laboratory  Fig 2: Preliminary data exhibiting detectable differences between several healthy and diseased mice lungs when utilizing the proposed new pulmonary function method

(SD2022-122) Unsupervised channel compression method for low power neural prostheses

Brain machine interfaces (BMIs) have the potential to help individuals with functional impairments, such as loss of motor control, due to neurological disease or spinal cord injury. BMIs map brain signals acquired in relevant brain regions to patient intent to enable functional restoration. In previous studies, BMIs have enabled patients to control robotic arm movements, and type by translating brain signals directly into text.  Intracortical BMIs record and sample brain signals from relevant regions of the brain at rates high enough to process both local field potentials (LFP) and action potentials (spikes).The development of high performance brain machine interfaces (BMIs) requires scaling recording channel count to enable simultaneous recording from large populations of neurons. Unfortunately, proposed implantable neural interfaces have power requirements that scale linearly with channel count. 

Variable Exposure Portable Perfusion Monitor

Brief description not available

System Of Epicardial Sensing And Pacing For Synchronizing A Whole Heart Assist Device

See patent publication no. US20210128000A1. A network of electrodes configured to sense and/or pace the heart, wherein the network of electrodes are in contact with an epicardial surface of the heart, within a wrapping sleeve that assist the heart as a whole, wherein the network of electrodes sense the heart by quantifying intrinsic electrical activities of the heart, and wherein the network of electrodes pace the heart by inducing an electrical impulse to the heart to control its contractile activities. The network may be interfaced with a controller system, wherein the controller uses spatial and temporal electrical activities of the heart muscles to generate electrical impulse to synchronize the wrapping sleeve around the heart with the heart. Also disclosed is a system configured to construct space-time mapping of cardiac electrical activities and/or propagation, and sensing effects of a first assist event of a prior beat and controlling a second assist event.

Percutaneous Heart Valve Delivery System

See patent information below. Embodiments described herein address the need for improved catheter devices for delivery, repositioning and/or percutaneous retrieval of the percutaneously implanted heart valves. One embodiment employs a plurality of spring-loaded arms releasably engaged with a stent frame for controlling expansion for valve deployment. Another embodiment employs a plurality of filaments passing through a distal end of a pusher sleeve and apertures in a self-expandable stent frame to control its state of deployment. With additional features, lateral positioning of the stent frame may also be controlled. Yet another embodiment includes plurality of outwardly biased arms held to complimentary stent frame features by overlying sheath segments. Still another embodiment integrates a visualization system in the subject delivery system. Variations on hardware and methods associated with the use of these embodiments are contemplated in addition to those shown and described.

Skin Optical Clearing Technique And Device Using Mechanical Compression

See patent information below. Embodiments of the present disclosure provides systems, devices, and methods for non-invasively modifying, maintaining, or controlling local tissue optical properties. Methods and devices of the disclosure may be used for optically clearing tissue, for example, for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes. A method of optically clearing a tissue may comprise contacting the tissue with an optical clearing device having a base, an array of pins fixed to one side of the base, a brim fixed to the base, an inlet port in the base, an exit port in the base, and a handpiece interface tab fixed to the side of the base opposite the array of pins, applying a mechanical force to the tissue, and illuminating said tissue with at least one wavelength of light through the optical clearing device. A method may further comprise controlling the temperature of the tissue illuminated.

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