Optical chromatography (OC) is an optofluidic technique enabling label-free fractionation of microscopic particles, e.g., bioparticles from heterogenous mixtures. This technique relies on a laser beam along a microfluidic channel to create opposing optical scattering and fluidic drag forces. Variable strength and balance of these forces may be harnessed for selective sorting of bioparticles based on their size, composition, and morphology. OC has been successfully applied to fractionation of blood components such as human erythrocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, and lymphocytes. OC offers unique capabilities as a modern separation technique, especially when combined with multi-stage sequential fractionation and microfluidic network-based purification approaches, and it particularly excels in distinguishing bioparticles with subtle differences. However, there are several key limitations with OC being widely adopted. In order to create strong optical scattering forces along the microfluidic channels, expensive and sophisticated laser sources must be precisely aligned along the fluidic channel with a well-controlled beam waist profile, requiring a complicated optical alignment procedure that employs multiple multi-axis positioners. While microfluidic approaches using OC hold promise for broader use, multiplexed and high throughput systems remain overly complicated and cost-prohibitive.