Learn more about UC TechAlerts – Subscribe to categories and get notified of new UC technologies

Browse Category: Medical > Disease: Infectious Diseases

Categories

[Search within category]

Development of a Novel cAMP–Inhibitor that Restores Epithelial and/or Endothelial Barrier Integrity in Human Cells Infected by Pathogenic Bacteria

Pathogenic bacteria have evolved elaborate and clever ways to enter our cells and breach the protection offered by our innate immune system. To initiate disease, many bacterial toxins target a specific cell, usually by binding to a receptor and thereby gaining access to the cytoplasm to promote pathogenesis. Interestingly, a set of toxins produced by diverse bacterial species act by distinct mechanisms to dramatically increase the intracellular concentration of cAMP. This striking evolutionary convergence suggests that overproduction of this second messenger represents a successful strategy to promote growth and dissemination of infectious agents, as well as disease symptoms. The organisms that produce these toxins that disrupt cAMP include:  Bacillus anthracis (B.a. and Anthrax edema toxin- ET, LT), Bordetella pertussis (CyaA), and Vibrio cholerae (Ctx) will be the focus of this study.     Current therapies to alleviate symptoms of cholea and anthrax are less than adequate and demonstrate that there is an urgent need for updated strategies and therapies for the treatment of these pathogenic diseases.

DNA Nanotechnology for Quick and Sensitive Detection of Nucleic Acids in Point-of-Care (POC) Diagnosis Applications

Researchers led by Dino Di Carlo from the Department of Bioengineering at UCLA have developed a quick, cheap, and accurate method to diagnose viral or bacterial infections.

Label-Free Digital Bright Field Analysis of DNA Amplification

UCLA researchers in the department of Bioengineering have developed a novel method for quantitative analysis of DNA amplification products.

Antibody Selection to Prevent or Treat Alzheimer’s Disease

Therapeutic antibodies have been developed to prevent or slow the cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but with limited clinical success to date. These treatment failures suggest that antibodies vary in their therapeutic efficacy and that more effective antibodies or combinations of antibodies need to be identified. To address this issue, researchers at UCI have developed a novel screening platform that can identify antibodies that may prevent or treat AD or other neurodegenerative disorders with high efficacy from human blood.

Genome-Wide Identification Of Immune Evasion Functions In A Virus

UCLA researchers in the Department of Pharmacology have discovered a novel approach toward generating live attenuated influenza vaccines with improved immune response in vivo.

Development of Novel Inhibitors of New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1)

Antibiotic-resistance in pathogenic bacteria has become a critical public health threat. A major mechanism of antibiotic resistance is microbial degradation of drugs by enzymes such as β-lactamases which degrade the β-lactam ring of β-lactam antibiotics, namely penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems and monobactams, inactivating them. There are four different molecular classes of β-lactamases (A-D). Three classes of β-lactamases (A, C, and D) utilize an active-site serine in covalent mechanisms that can be targeted by β-lactamase inhibitors coformulated with β-lactam drugs. In contrast, class B consists of metallo-β- lactamases (MBLs) that utilize one or two active site Zn(II) ion(s) to catalyze the hydrolysis of the β-lactam ring. The emergence of carbapenemase producing bacteria, especially New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) and its variants, worldwide, has raised a major public health concern. NDM-1 hydrolyzes a wide range of β-lactam antibiotics, imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem, gentamicin, amikacin, tobramycin, and ciprofloxacin including carbapenems, which are the last resort of antibiotics for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria such as carbanenem-resistant Enterobacteriacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Currently, there are Inhibitors of NDM-1, both of which have liabilities, either due to adverse effects in mammals or off-target inhibitory activity. Therefore, a new type of NDM-1 inhibitor is needed.

Vaccine Against Herpes Simplex Virus Infection

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections affect billions of patients worldwide and can manifest its symptoms as painful blisters or ulcers at oral, ocular or genital locations. Symptomatic patients can currently only alleviate their pains with antiviral medication. This technology proposes a shift in focus toward novel protective epitopes as the foundation for new vaccines.

Novel Biomarker Panel for the Early Diagnosis of Lyme Disease

This diagnostic technology uses a panel of 20 biomarkers to diagnose Lyme disease with much higher sensitivity and accuracy than other currently existing methods. Lyme disease can be detected in peripheral blood samples from patients even at early hard-to-diagnose stages. These aspects of the invention make it indispensable for speeding up recovery and prevention of complications associated with this debilitating illness such as carditis, arthritis, neurological illness and even death.

Inhibitors Of Zika Virus

UCLA researchers in the Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Department of Radiation Oncology and Department of Pathology have identified sulfonamide-based small molecules that show anti-Zika activity at low nanomolar range.

A Prognostic Biomarker For Coccidioidomycosis

UCLA researchers in the Department of Pediatrics and the Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology have identified a prognostic biomarker for Coccidioidomycosis.

Novel Inhibitor of HIV Replication

UCLA researchers in the David Geffen School of Medicine have discovered a new small molecule inhibitor for HIV-1 replication.

Human Resistin for the Treatment of Sepsis

Prof. Meera Nair and her colleagues at UCR have discovered that human resistin may be used as a therapy to treat sepsis.  Using a transgenic mouse model expressing human resistin, researchers showed that  mice expressing resistin had a 80-100% rate of survival from a sepsis-like infection when compared to wildtype mice with the same infection. The researchers also found that human resistin decreased the number of pro-inflammatory and Th1 cytokines.  Through immunoprecipitation assays, human resistin was found to bind to TLR-4 thus blocking the TLR-4 signaling in immune and inflammatory cells. Fig. 1 shows the survival curves for four different mouse models exposed to a sepsis like infection. The red line represents wild type C57BL/6 mice and none of these mice survived the infection. The black line is the background mouse model without the transgene incorporated into its genome. The Tg+ and Tg2+ are two different transgenic mouse models expressing human resistin. Fig. 2 shows that structural modeling predicts that resistin (green/blue) binds TLR4 (red) and blocks binding LPS co-receptor MD2 (grey)

High Frequency Digital Frequency Domain Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging System For Applications On Tissues

The technology is a software/hardware combination designed to enhance sampling rate for frequency domain fluorescence lifetime imaging. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a technique that uses signals emitted from fluorescent samples to construct images of those samples in near real time. An advantage to FLIM is its ability to image large fields of view, which makes it an attractive option for dynamical measurements of live biological tissues. The higher sampling rate available using this technology will allow for more information to be gleaned from biological samples, which may have a fluorescence band up to 1 GHz, advancing tissue imaging.

Portable waterborne pathogen detector

The inventors at the University of California, Irvine, have developed an automated, easy-to-use digital PCR system that can be used at the time of sample collection, making it highly effective in microbial pathogen analysis in resource-limited settings and extreme conditions.

Circulatory Cells as Carriers for Photo-Activated Bioregulators

Circulatory cells as carriers for photo-activated small molecule bioregulator releasing compounds and systems.

Anti-Oxidant Response Modifiers as Treatment for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder

UCLA researchers have identified anti-oxidative response modulators as a potential treatment for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND).

Anti-Microbial Contact Lens With Ocular Drug Delivery

Anti-microbial, anti-fungal drug eluting contact lens for the controlled release of ophthalmic therapeutics.

Novel Anti-Bacterial, Anti-Fungal Nanopillared Surface

Medical devices are susceptible to contamination by harmful microbes, such as bacteria and fungi, which form biofilms on device surfaces. These biofilms are often resistant to antibiotics and other current treatments, resulting in over 2 million people per year suffering from diseases related to these contaminating microbes. Death rates for many of these diseases are high, often exceeding 50%. Researchers at UCI have developed a novel anti-bacterial and anti-fungal biocomposite that incorporates a nanopillared surface structure that can be applied as a coating to medical devices.

Antiviral Compounds for HIV and Other Viral Infections

This invention identifies a novel class of HIV inhibitors targeting RNA-protein interactions.

Test for Intestinal Permeability

Researchers from the Department of General Surgery at UCLA have developed an easy-to-use method to determine intestinal permeability that utilizes an FDA-approved non-absorbable dye.

A Method For Screening Drugs, Nutritional Supplements And Probiotics For Their Ability To Enhance Or Disrupt The Gut Barrier

The gut is a complex environment; the gut mucosa maintains immune homeostasis under physiological circumstances by serving as a barrier that restricts access of trillions of microbes, diverse microbial products, food antigens and toxins to the largest immune system in the body. The gut barrier is comprised of a single layer of epithelial cells, bound by cell-cell junctions, and a layer of mucin that covers the epithelium. Loosening of the junctions induced either by exogenous or endogenous stressors, compromises the gut barrier and allows microbes and antigens to leak through and encounter the host immune system, thereby generating inflammation and systemic endotoxemia. An impaired gut barrier (e.g. a leaky gut) is a major contributor to the initiation and/or progression of various chronic diseases including, but not limited to, metabolic endotoxemia, type II diabetes, fatty liver disease, obesity, atherosclerosis and inflammatory bowel diseases. Despite the growing acceptance of the importance of the gut barrier in diseases, knowledge of the underlying mechanism(s) that reinforce the barrier when faced with stressors is incomplete, and viable and practical strategies for pharmacologic modulation of the gut barrier remain unrealized.

Non-Human Primate Adenovirus Model of Human Respiratory Disease

Researchers at the University of California, Davis have developed a model of human respiratory disease using a titi monkey adenovirus.

Sieve Container For Contactless Media Exchange For Cell Growth

Media that contains nutrients and growth factors is necessary to grow all types of cells, a process that is widely used in many fields of research. Such media should be routinely changed either to different media or a fresh batch of the same media. This change currently involves either using a pipette to transfer cells from their current dish of media to a new dish, or aspirating the media out of the dish and replacing it with new media. Both methods have inherent risks to stressing and damaging the cells. Researchers at UCI have developed a unique dish for growing cells that allows for safer aspiration of the old media, which reduces stress and damage to the cells.

Novel Small Protein Inhibitors for Rapid and Controllable CRISPR-Cas9 Interference

This invention identifies a novel class of natural protein-based inhibitors of CRISPR-Cas9, which could eliminate off-target effects of Cas9-mediated gene editing. It also presents an attractive antibiotic strategy and a potential biodefense agent against CRISPR bioterror threat.

Polycytotoxic T Cells

UCLA researchers in the Department of Dermatology have characterized a novel subset of CD8+ T cells, termed polycytotoxic, that mediate killing of intracellular pathogens.

  • Go to Page: