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Compositions and Methods for Treating Viral Infections

Researchers at the University of California, Davis (“UC Davis”) have developed methods for screening and targeting regions of viral genomes to identify drugs that inhibit the replication of RNA viruses.

Anti-Influenza Small Molecule Therapy

Professor Jiayu Liao from the University of California, Riverside has identified small molecules that block  the Influenza B virus (IBV) from replicating by inhibiting the SUMOylation pathway. This IBV virus replication inhibition works by using the novel SUMOylation inhibitor, STE025, to inhibit the SUMOylation of the IBV M1 protein. SUMOylation also has active roles in the pathogenesis of several diseases, such as tumorigenesis, neurodegenerative diseases and infections, and as such, this technology could potentially be applied to these types of diseases as well. Fig 1: Cell death induced by IBV infection can be rescued by the UCR SUMOylation-specific inhibitor, STE025 (blue) compared to cells not exposed to IBV (green), and cells exposed to IBV without the UCR inhibitor (purple and red).  

DETECTION ASSAY FOR SARS-COV-2 VIRUS

Researchers at UCSF and the Chan Zuckerberg Biohub have developed methods to detect SARS-CoV-2 virus.

BIOSENSOR DETECTION ASSAY FOR ANTI-SARS-COV-2 ANTIBODIES

Researchers at UCSF and the Chan Zuckerberg Biohub have developed a serological detection assay for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. 

ENGINEERED ACE2 RECEPTOR TRAPS TO BLOCK SARS-COV-2 INFECTION

Researchers at UCSF and the Chan Zuckerberg Biohub have developed a set of ACE2 variants which potently block SAR-CoV-2 infection in cells. 

Methods To Rapidly Measure Antibodies And Other Biomolecules In Clinical Specimens Utilizing Biolayer Interferometry

The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 and associated declaration of a global pandemic in 2020 underscore the importance of rapid and accurate infectious disease testing. Serological tests,  which facilitate vaccine development and identification of population spread, are commonly used as countermeasures to infection. Existing serological testing methods, like lateral flow immunoassays, are not quantitative and reliably sensitive though. Other immunoassays have better sensitivity and specificity but require long incubation times and are labor-intensive.  

Human Astrovirus Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody Sequences

Human astroviruses cause viral gastroenteritis in children, elderly, and immune-compromised individuals. VA1 clade human astroviruses can cause encephalitis or meningitis in immune-compromised individuals. There are no preventative measures or antiviral therapies for human astrovirus disease.

Genetically Engineered Dendritic Cell-Derived Vaccines

Researchers at the University of California, Irvine have developed a new vaccine which generates a targeted, specific immune response with fewer complications than currently available vaccines.

Modulating MD-2-Integrin Interaction for Sepsis Treatment

Researchers at the University of California, Davis have developed a potential therapeutic treatment for sepsis by modulating the interaction between integrins and Myeloid Differentiation factor 2 (MD-2).

(SD2022-014) Neural Signal Detection of Immune Responses: miniaturized wireless data streaming system to detect early infection

A promising area of clinical research has been growing in wearable diagnostics that has proven to be a powerful tool in healthy physiological as well as disease diagnostics. As the field grows and develops, a number of specializations are already emerging including diagnostics focused on: cardiac dysfunction, epilepsy, and most recently infectious disease detection.

Kaposi Sarcoma Associated Herpesvirus Gene Function and Methods for Developing Antivirals, Anti-KSHV Vaccines, and KSHV Based Vectors

The inventors present a novel strategy for achieving pathogen opportunistic pathogenesis, with broad implications for treating infectious diseases. In a comprehensive analysis of Kaposi sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV), a medically important virus, the inventors discovered novel antiviral targets and gene function, and identified opportunistic factors with dual functions of regulating both the immune environment/responses and viral reactivation/replication. This discovery includes:A collection of KSHV mutants with inactivation or deletion of each of the 91 predicted open reading frames (91 mutant strains). Methods and reagents (e.g. primers) for construction of the collection of KSHV mutants. The identity of 44 KSHV essential genes, which represent potential antiviral targets (including 27 newly identified essential genes). Methods for construction of gene-inactivation and rescued mutants, and for tagging and introducing foreign genes into the KSHV genome. These approaches can be used for vector and vaccine development. Growth properties of viral mutants with inactivation of non-essential genes.Methods for screening mutants in different human cell lines.Opportunistic factors of KSHV and all other animal viruses that have dual functions as both the modulators of immune environment/response and regulators of viral reactivation/replication.   

Modular Vaccine Platform

Following the pandemic, there is a clear need for improved technology in the area of vaccines. A pressing challenge is to enable a rapid response to emerging threats, using an established platform technology.

Small Molecules for Treating Clostridium perfringens-related Bacterial Infections

Researchers at the University of California, Davis have developed a method of treating infections caused by Clostridium perfringens bacteria - via inhibiting the bacteria’s normal quorum sensing processes.

Antibiotic to Fight Gram Negative and Resistant Bacteria

Researchers at the University of California, Davis have developed a gyramide antibiotic which is effective against Gram-negative and fluoroquinolones (FQs) resistant bacteria.

Cyclic Peptide Inhibitors of The SARS-Cov-2 Main Protease

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has rapidly spread across the globe with severe medical, social, and economic costs. The Researchers at the University of California Irvine have designed novel cyclic peptide inhibitors based on a crystal structure of an inactive variant of SARS-CoV, known as Mpro318. Based on a small library of cyclic peptide inhibitors, some candidates showed promising in vitro activity at low micromolar concentrations.

Covidseeker. Digital Contact Tracing And Hotspotting In Real-Time

UCSF PIs developed a novel software platform for COVID-19 contact tracing and hotspotting called COVIDseeker. Covidseeker looks back in time and may be able to recreate people’s movements when infection rates were rising and falling in the spring and summer of 2020, giving epidemiologists an invaluable source of data as they try to predict what is going to happen in the fall and winter.This digital health invention has applications broader than COVID-19. The software can potentially be leveraged for other infectious diseases, treating obesity, and controlling smoking or alcohol addiction by showing where and when people are when they smoke, what are the triggers and how their location contributes to the risk of developing a particular disease.

Anti-microbial, Immune-modulating, Naturally-derived Adjunctive Therapies

Researchers at the University of California, Davis have developed adjunctive therapies applicable to multiple types of infectious conditions. These therapies – derived from compounds found in natural herbs - also have potential prophylactic efficacy.

A Broadly Neutralizing Molecule Against Clostridium Difficile Toxin B

Researchers at UCI have developed a family of recombinant protein therapeutics against Clostridium difficile designed to provide broad-spectrum protection and neutralization against all isoforms of its main toxin, TcdB. These antitoxin molecules feature fragments of TcdB’s human receptors which compete for TcdB binding, significantly improving upon existing antibody therapeutics for Clostridium difficile infections.

A Point Of Care Method To Detect Covid19 Infected And Immune Patients For Pennies

The emergence of a novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in late 2019 has caused a worldwide health and economic crisis. Determining which members of the population are infected is key to re-opening of schools, universities, and non-essential businesses. To address this, researchers at UCI and UIC have developed an inexpensive point of care test using RNA aptamer technology for detecting COVID19 infected and immune patients that can be taken at home like a pregnancy test.

COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR TREATING VIRAL INFECTIONS

UC Berkley researchers have discovered compositions and methods for treating an RNA virus infection such as SARS-CoV-2 by administering an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor, such as remdesivir, combined with a second FDA-approved therapeutic agent. Velpatasvir, Elbasvir, Dabrafenib, Omeprazole sulfide, Telmisartan, Selexipag, and Nifedipine are all FDA-approved molecules that have been shown to function synergistically with remdesivir for treating infection with an RNA virus.

Use of inhibitors and cell based therapies to combat a fatal immune response in COVID-19

UC researchers sought to define the host immune response, the “cytokine storm” , that has been implicated in fatal COVID-19 using an AI-based approach. Over 45,000 publicly available transcriptomic datasets of viral pandemics were analyzed to extract a 166-gene signature. The signature was surprisingly conserved in all viral pandemics, including COVID-19, inspiring the nomenclature ViP-signature. A subset of 20-genes classified disease severity in respiratory pandemics. The ViP signatures pinpointed airway epithelial and myeloid cells as the major contributors of an IL-15 cytokine storm, and epithelial and NK cell destruction as determinants of severity/fatality. They also helped formulate precise therapeutic goals to reduce disease symptoms and severity. Thus, the ViP signatures provide a quantitative and qualitative framework for titrating the immune response in viral pandemics and may serve as a powerful unbiased tool in our armamentarium to rapidly assess disease severity and vet candidate drugs. 

METHODS OF TREATING SARS-COV-2 INFECTION USING INHIBITORS OF LIPOGENESIS

As of June 2020, the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 infections (Coronaviral Disease 2019 (Covid-19)) caused about 9 million infections and about 460,000 deaths worldwide. The pandemic is expected to expand in the late 2020, particularly, because of the lack of a therapeutically effective treatment for the disease. Therefore, methods of treating SARS-CoV-2 infection are desired.   UC Berkeley inventors have developed methods of treating a SARS-CoV-2 infection in a patient infected with SARS-CoV-2 by administering to the patient a therapeutically effective amount of an inhibitor of lipogenesis. The inhibitor of lipogenesis can be an inhibitor of a lipogenic enzyme or an activator of 5’AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK).  

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