Bacterial infections create U.S. healthcare costs in the billions every year. For example, urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the more common and recurrent infections in women and older patients of both gender. UTIs in the U.S. account for nearly seven million office visits and a direct cost of about $1.6B annually. Because antimicrobial drug use in both humans and animals can contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance, some experts have suggested a widespread reduction of antibiotic and antimicrobial use, thus possibly making early detection of bacterial infection more important than ever. Aggressive detection measures can be effective in halting outbreaks and providing timely and accurate medical treatment. Traditional methods to detect drug-resistant bacterial pathogens have relied on biochemical assays, which are expensive, slow, and cumbersome. More recently introduced nucleic acid-based methods are limited by the fact that there are thousands of drug-resistance genes harbored by bacterial pathogens. To address this challenge, researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, have researched how proteins encoded by drug-resistance genes of bacteria behave and interact with certain cross-reactive antibodies. Researchers have successfully experimented with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, and through their investigation, developed a fast, definitive approach of detecting a broad spectrum of enzymes that mediate drug-resistance among drug-resistant bacterial pathogens by way of immunological response. The Berkeley invention holds promise over traditional point-of-care diagnostics in terms of speed, complexity, and cost. The use of low-cost antibodies integrated with an immunochromatographic strip test or specialized microfluidic device could enable simple and quick recognition of drug-resistant pathogens in a doctor's office, hospital, or retail clinic. This, in turn, could lead to significantly improved treatment of bacterial infection and considerable reduction in patient treatment time and cost.