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A New Class Of HIV Inhibitors Targeting Viral Accessory Factor vif

Current antiretroviral agents target enzymatic functions of the virus such as reverse transcription (nonnucleoside or nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors; NNRTI and NRTI), protease processing of viral polyporoteins (protease inhibitors), viral membrane fusion (fusion inhibitors) and viral DNA integration (integarase inhibitors). Drug cocktail (a combination of nonnucleoside and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors as well as protease inhibitors) is effective in suppressing viral infection into a chronic condition which rarely progresses to AIDS, many of the inhibitors have adverse side effects. For example, NRTIs can interfere with mitochondrial DNA synthesis and cause hypersensitivity, anemia, diarrhea, neuropathy, nausea, and fatigue in patients. NNRTI may cause severe liver damage or psychological disorders such as depression and insomnia. Protease inhibitors may cause numerous drug-drug interaction, elevated lipodystrophy, and elevated risk of heart attack. Lastly, integrase inhibitors only have short and medium term medical outcomes but are not suitable for long-term use. Therefore there is a need to search for a different class of HIV inhibitors that are efficacious and better-tolerated by patients. HIV-1 encodes accessory proteins including vif, vpu, and nef; these proteins counteract cellular antiviral factors that otherwise would restrict viral replication. Necessary for the replication of HIV-1, vif promotes viral replication by targeting host antiviral protein apobec 3 for degradation. Apobec 3 is a cytidine deaminase that introduces catastrophic levels of G to A hypermutations in viral cDNA, thus yielding biologically incompetent viral genomes. As viral replication is absolutely dependent on the ability of vif to neutralize apobec 3, the vif-apobec axis is an attractive antiviral target.  Currently, there are no compounds that target the vif/apobec axis.

New Inhibitors of the HIV Protease

Drug resistance is one of the key roadblocks towards successful treatment of AIDS. Although numerous drugs have been developed to target various viral proteins, resistant viral strains are selected in the presence of the drug to become dominant in the population, therefore severely impairing drug efficacy and increasing the cost of treatment. There is an unmet need to develop strategies to combat drug resistance.

Novel compounds for the treatment of fungal infections

Treatment of fungal infections remains a medical challenge and better and more efficacious treatments are needed. Antifungal agents provide relief from fungal infections that can potentially infect almost any part of the human body, but, systemic fungal infections can be life threatening. A commonly prescribed antifungal drug for systemic fungal infections is fluconazole. Fluconazole tends to be well tolerated; however there have been reports of various undesirable side effects as well as the emergence of fluconazole resistant fungal strains.

A Gene Expression Panel For Diagnosis Of Ebola Virus Infection

This invention identifies a novel host gene expression panel to screen for the Ebola virus in pre-symptomatic patients.

Small Molecule Targeting HSP70 for Antiviral Therapy

Inhibitors of host Heat Shock Protein-70 (HSP70) as antiviral agents

Methods for Real-Time Sequencing Analysis of Infectious Diseases

A novel point-of-care technology enables real-time analysis and visualization of metagenomic sequence data for pathogen detection using a device that generates long sequencing reads at low cost and high speed with minimal sample preparation and instrumentation.

Erodible Polymer Particle Oral Vaccine Adjuvant

Brief description not available

Hydrogel Coatings on Medical Implants for Preventative and Therapeutic Applications

Researchers in UCLA Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering have successfully incorporated antibiotics into a novel amphiphilic polymer that was covalently linked to titanium implants. The coating allowed for local release of antibiotics around the proximity of the implant.

Preparation and Activity of Novel Photosensitizer Acting as a Broad Spectrum Antiviral Agent Against Enveloped Viruses

Professor Michael Jung’s group at UCLA has developed a novel class of compounds with broad spectrum antiviral activity toward enveloped viruses.

High-Throughput Profiling of Point Mutations Across the HIV-1 Genome

The Sun Group at UCLA has developed a quantitative, high-throughput assessment of the mutational susceptibility of genomic regions of HIV-1 to aid drug design.

Activating HIV Latency Using Drug Encapsulated Nanoparticles

UCLA researchers in the Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics have devised a novel method to target the HIV virus in patients using nanoparticles loaded with therapeutic agents.

Method For Delivery Of Drugs Across The Intact Tympanic Membrane

The current treatment for ear infections such as systemic antibiotics can have serious side effects, especially if used prophylactically to prevent recurrent middle ear infections. Also, the amount of drug that actually reaches the middle ear is not high, and often ineffective. In children, especially, systemic antibiotics lead to drug resistance. Other treatment options include tympanostomy tubes (surgery) which requires general anesthesia, with risks. Therefore local delivery of drugs to the middle ear would address many of these issues. 

A Novel Targeting Approach for Selective Delivery of Therapeutic Agents

A novel class of linker/targeting moieties conferring selective release of therapeutic agents in rapidly proliferating mammalian cells or pathogens, leading to reduced drug-associated toxicity in patients and increased therapeutic index.

Identification of Sortases and Methods of Use

UCLA has a portfolio of intellectual property on the composition, methods of screening, and methods of use of the sortase-transamidase enzymes, Sortases A and B.  

Rapid Antigen Detection Test for the Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis

Confirmation of infection with human brucellosis is typically done by culturing of a blood sample and agglutination with a fixed Brucella abortus antigen. Because brucellosis DNA has been found to persist in blood after successful treatment, PCR amplification techniques are not useful when trying to confirm relapse. ELISA assays that detect antibodies to B. abortus are not recommended for diagnosing the human agent because of their limited specificity resulting in false positive results.

Novel Chitosan Derivative as a Systemic Drug Delivery Agent and an Antibiotic Treatment

Researchers at the University of California, Irvine have developed a novel chitosan derivative that may be used simultaneously as a systemic drug delivery agent and a systemic antibiotic treatment.

Novel RNA Biomarkers

Background: Current interest in small noncoding regulatory RNAs and their involvement in the pathology of human diseases has been growing extensively. The potential to grow the known classes of  biomarkers opens the door to better diagnosis and treatment. Description: UCR researchers have discovered  a novel class of circulating small RNAs that may have a broad physiological role. These small RNAs interestingly change in expression with age and are partially mitigated with calorie restriction. These novel RNA biomarkers  may indicate specific disease states, particularly cancer.

Linear Lipopeptides As Treatments For Infectious Diseases

Leishmaniasis is a debilitating disease prevalent across many inter-tropical regions of the world. Caused by over twenty species of intracellular parasite from the genus Leishmania, leishmaniasis can present itself in a number of different clinical manifestations including cutaneous, mucosal and visceral forms of the disease. Both the cutaneous and mucosal forms can cause severe disfigurements to patients including ulcerative skin lesions and the destruction of the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth and throat leading to permanent disfigurement and frequent social ostracization. A shortfall of affordable and clinically efficacious treatments has led World Health Organization to designate leishmaniasis as a category 1 disease, signifying that it is an emerging and uncontrolled global health problem. Human African trypanosmiasis or Sleepign sickness is a parasitic disease of people and animals, caused by protozoa of the species Trypanosoma brucei and transmitted by the tsetse fly. It is estimated that 50,000 to 70,000 people are currently infected. The current standard treatment for first stage trypanosomiasis employs administering intravenous pentamidine (for T.b. gambiense) or intravenous suramin (for T.b. rhodesiense).

Rapid, Portable Dengue Virus Diagnostic

The 4 dengue virus serotypes (DENV1-4) cause the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral illness in humans with up to 96 million cases annually worldwide.  Dengue virus infections can result in a range of clinical manifestations from asymptomatic infection to dengue fever (DF) and the severe disease dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome.  Thus, there is a need for accurate, specific, inexpensive Dengue diagnostic test that can be used for early detection and treatment and can be used for surveillance and outbreak investigations.     UC Researchers have developed an assay that can be used to identify serotype-specific and cross-reactive B cells in DENV-infected individuals as well as in vaccines.  The assay allows detection of B cell antigen specificity to the four different pathogen serotypes on a per-cell basis and allows visualization of serotype cross-reactivity versus type-specificity per cell. 

Immunogenic Peptides as Vaccines against Herpes Simplex Virus

Immunogenic peptides isolated from HSV seropositive asymptomatic (ASYMP) individuals induce a CD8+ T cell- dependent protective immunity against herpes virus in a mammal.

A Novel Antimicrobial Peptide Produced by Skin Commensal Bacteria

As the rise in antibiotic resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics becomes a major public health threat, new approaches are needed for the management of infections.  UCSD investigators have utilized a different approach for skin infections and certain kinds of dermatological diseases, which has a lower impact on the homeostasis of the resident skin microflora. Imbalanced microflora contribute to the pathogenesis of skin inflammatory diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, rosacea and acne vulgaris. This invention provides potent, novel molecules for treating skin infections or disinfecting surfaces but may have fewer safety risks than broad spectrum antibiotics.

Simple Diagnostic Kit Designed to Rapidly Detect Drug-Resistant Bacterial Pathogens

Bacterial infections create U.S. healthcare costs in the billions every year. For example, urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the more common and recurrent infections in women and older patients of both gender. UTIs in the U.S. account for nearly seven million office visits and a direct cost of about $1.6B annually. Because antimicrobial drug use in both humans and animals can contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance, some experts have suggested a widespread reduction of antibiotic and antimicrobial use, thus possibly making early detection of bacterial infection more important than ever. Aggressive detection measures can be effective in halting outbreaks and providing timely and accurate medical treatment. Traditional methods to detect drug-resistant bacterial pathogens have relied on biochemical assays, which are expensive, slow, and cumbersome. More recently introduced nucleic acid-based methods are limited by the fact that there are thousands of drug-resistance genes harbored by bacterial pathogens. To address this challenge, researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, have researched how proteins encoded by drug-resistance genes of bacteria behave and interact with certain cross-reactive antibodies. Researchers have successfully experimented with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, and through their investigation, developed a fast, definitive approach of detecting a broad spectrum of enzymes that mediate drug-resistance among drug-resistant bacterial pathogens by way of immunological response. The Berkeley invention holds promise over traditional point-of-care diagnostics in terms of speed, complexity, and cost. The use of low-cost antibodies integrated with an immunochromatographic strip test or specialized microfluidic device could enable simple and quick recognition of drug-resistant pathogens in a doctor's office, hospital, or retail clinic. This, in turn, could lead to significantly improved treatment of bacterial infection and considerable reduction in patient treatment time and cost.

Shrink-Induced, Self-Driven Microfluidic Devices

The addition of novel surface modifications and use of shrink-wrap film to create devices will yield self-driven, shrink-induced microfluidic detection for samples such as bodily fluids. Novel fabrications and surfaces will have a profound impact on the creation of point of care diagnostics.

Potential Novel Anti-Viral Target For Chemotherapeutics Against Picornaviruses, Such As Human Rhinovirus An Entervirus 71

Picornaviruses, viruses that belong to the family Picornaviridae, are single-stranded RNA viruses that infect both humans and animals. The major picornaviruses that affect humans include enteroviral pathogens (poliovirus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus, echovirus), rhinoviruses (approximately 105 serotypes), hepatitis A virus, and parechoviruses. Currently, there no medications indicated to treat picornavirus infections, and only the symptoms can be treated. New treatments for picornavirus infections would be extremely useful for medical professionals and their patients. Researchers at the University of California, Irvine have discovered an enzyme that is involved in the virus life cycle of the picornavirus. This enzyme may be a novel anti-viral target for chemotherapeutics that can be used against picornaviruses.

Production of Malarial Surface Proteins in Algae for Use as Transmission Blocking Vaccine Candidates

P. falciparum surface proteins have been shown to block transmission of malaria. Producing them in algae results in proteins that are correctly folded and not glycosylated, so they are more similar to the native proteins than those produced in bacterial or mammalian systems. In order to produce them for use as vaccine candidates, they will need to be produced in an inexpensive expression system that does not require much, if any, post-production modification and algae chloroplasts provide a viable approach.  SAMPLE DATA   

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