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Browse Category: Medical > Disease: Cardiovascular and Circulatory System


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Atrial Cage For Placement, Securing And Anchoring Of Atrioventricular Valves

A collapsible heart valve supporting structure that securely anchors and prevents unwanted valvular dislodgment post implantation.

Automated Selection of Myocardial Inversion Time with a Convolutional Neural Network

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been noted for its excellent soft tissue imaging capability with zero radiation dose. It has repeatedly been touted as the imaging modality of the future, but due to its complexity, long exam times and high cost, its growth has been severely limited. This especially has been the case for cardiac MRI, which only accounts for about I percent of all MRI exams in the United States. Delayed enhancement (DE) imaging is an essential component of cardiac MRI, widely used for the evaluation of myocardial scar and viability. The selection of an optimal inversion time (TI), known as the myocardial null point (TINP), to suppress the background myocardial signal is required to optimize image contrast in myocardial delayed enhancement (MDE) acquisitions. Incorrect selection of TINP can impair diagnostic quality. In certain diffuse myocardial diseases such as amyloidosis, it may be difficult to identify a single optimal null point. Further, it is known that TINP varies after intravenous contrast administration, and is therefore time-sensitive. In practice, selection of myocardial inversion time is generally performed through visual inspection and selection of TINP from an inversion recovery scout acquisition. This is dependent on the skill of a technologist or physician to select the optimal inversion time, which may not be readily available outside of specialized centers. However, such methods still rely on visual inspection of an image series by a trained human observer to select an optimal myocardial inversion time. A way to overcome these deficiencies is to embrace Deep learning approaches, including convolutional neural networks (CNNs),     which have the potential to automate selection of inversion time, and are the current state-of-the-art technology for image classification, segmentation, localization, and Spatial Temporal Ensemble Myocardium Inversion NETwork (STEMI-NET) prediction. However, these static CNN models have some drawbacks which could be overcome via the use of dynamic temporal activities for object recognition.

Covalent Activators Of K2p Channels

Researchers at UCSF have developed a series of small-molecules that selectively label the TREK1 (KCNK2) potassium ion channel. These compounds are the first covalent activator of any member of the K2P family of potassium ion channels.

Preventative Trackable Anticoagulants for Atrial Fibrillation Treatment

Researchers at the University of California, Davis have developed a process to localize anticoagulation drugs for treatment of inflammation and atrial fibrillations.

Development of a New Biomarker for Diagnosis of Cardiovascular Disease: Monoclonal Antibody to Oxidized Cholesteryl Esters

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The primary prevention of CVD is dependent upon the ability to identify high-risk individuals long before the development of overt events. This highlights the need for accurate risk stratification. An increasing number of novel biomarkers have been identified to predict cardiovascular events. Biomarkers play a critical role in the definition, prognostication, and decision-making regarding the management of cardiovascular events. There are several promising biomarkers that might provide diagnostic and prognostic information. The myocardial tissue-specific biomarker cardiac troponin, high-sensitivity assays for cardiac troponin, and heart-type fatty acid binding potential help diagnose myocardial infarction (MI) in the early hours following symptoms. Inflammatory markers such as growth differentiation factor-15, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and uric acid predict MI and death and many others. However, there is a high unmet medical need for the more specific biomarkers that reflect different aspects of the development of atherosclerosis. 

New Method for the Detection of Vulnerable Plaques in Coronary Artery Atherosclerotic Disease (CAD)

Heart disease is a major leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the U.S. largely due to coronary artery atherosclerotic disease (CAD), which affects millions and costs billions annually. The concept of plaque vulnerability, based on likelihood of fibroatheroma rupture, has prompted many pursuits to identify high risk lesions, costing $150 million per year. However, identifying vulnerable plaques based on structure, via coronary angiograms or CT/MRI scans, has not translated to improved clinical outcome. Thus, the failure to identify and predict plaques at high risk of rupture, which may lead to myocardial infarction, heart failure and/or sudden cardiac death, is likely because structure may not optimally discern plaque vulnerability. Molecular imaging, in contrast, offers an innovative approach for discriminating the vulnerable plaque in that it not only visualizes structure, but also interrogates underlying molecular function. Based on the current methods to detect plaques, there is a need for a better method for measuring plaque rupture vulnerability.

Intravascular Ultrasound-guided Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (IVUS-EIS) to Assess Lipid-Laden Plaques

UCLA researchers in the Department of Medicine have developed a novel intravascular ultrasound-guided electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (IVUS-EIS) system for the detection of oxLDL-laden plaques in arteries.

A Method To Determine Cause Of A Cardiac Arrest And Provide Cause-Specific Decision Support In Real-Time Using Continuous Electrocardiography

Researchers led by Duc Hong Do from the Department of Cardiology at UCLA have developed an algorithm to detect the cause of cardiac arrest in a hospital setting.

Flexible Balloon-Inflatable Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy To Assess Endoluminal Lipid-Rich Lesions

UCLA researchers have developed a novel flexible balloon-inflatable electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to facilitate the diagnosis of metabolically active atherosclerotic lesions.

New Method for Generation of Human Pacemaker Cardiomyocytes

The heart consists of a multitude of diverse cardiomyocyte cell types, including atrial, ventricular and pacemaker cells, which cooperate to ensure proper cardiac function and circulation throughout the body. The rhythm of the heart beat is regulated by the sinoatrial node (SAN), functionally known as the cardiac pacemaker. Loss or dysfunction of these pacemaker cardiomyocytes leads to severe cardiac arrhythmias, syncope and/or even death. Although artificial pacemakers exist to help overcome these issues, several serious limitations and problems have emerged with this approach over the past several decades including electrode fracture or damage to insulation, infection, re-operations for battery exchange, and venous thrombosis. Moreover, size mismatch and the fact that pacemaker leads do not grow with children are a concerning problem. Thus, replacing artificial pacemakers with biological pacemakers potentially overcomes these artificial pacemaker issues including the expense and complications associated with device replacement, device or lead failure, and infection. To achieve these goals, understanding how pacemaker cardiomyocytes are generated is necessary to develop a human biological pacemaker for cardiac cellular therapies.

A New Mechanism For Hypertriglyceridemia In Humans

UCLA researchers in the Department of Medicine have identified autoantibodies against GPIHBP1, a GPI anchored protein of capillary endothelial cells, which may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for patients with hypertriglyceridemia.

Inhibition of the Aggregation of Transthyretin by Specific Binding of Peptides to Aggregation-Driving Segments

UCLA researchers from the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry have developed a novel process to inhibit amyloid aggregation of Transthyretin, which is associated with three debilitating disorders including senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA), Familial Amyloidotic Polyneuropathies (FAP), and Familial Amyloidotic Cardiomyopathies (FAC).

3D Scaffolds For Mesoderm Differentiation

Researchers led by Benjamin Wu from the Departments of Bioengineering and Pathology & Laboratory Medicine have developed an implantable scaffolding that can create hematopoietic stem cells from pluripotent stem cells in vivo.

Proteoglycan Mimetics For Enhanced Wound Healing Angiogenesis And Vascular Repair

Researchers at the University of California, Davis We have developed proteoglycan mimetics that alters the extracellular environment to promote local vascular repair and wound healing.

An Improved Phase-Contrast MRI Technique

UCLA researchers in the Department of Radiological Sciences have developed a phase-contrast MRI acquisition technique called Hybrid One- and Two-sided Flow Encoding Only (HOTFEO).

Development of Novel Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Allosteric Modulators

The G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a very important family of cell surface receptors that respond to extracellular signals which then transduce those signals into intracellular responses.  They are also the largest family of targets of currently available therapeutics. Adrenergic receptors belong to the GPCR superfamily and their natural ligands are the catecholamines, epinephrine and norepinephrine. Adrenergic receptors can be further divided into two receptor subfamilies, α and β that exhibit differences in tissue distribution, ligand specificity and cellular output. The β adrenergic receptors (βARs) are important mediators in diseases like asthma, Parkinson’s disease, hypertension and heart failure. Therefore, there is a direct need for new modulators for the βARs receptors.

The Therapeutic Use of Human Oligosaccharides to Treat Atherosclerosis and/or Hyperlipidemia

In the United States and most other developed countries, atherosclerosis is the leading cause of illness and death. In 2015, cardiovascular disease, primarily coronary artery disease (atherosclerosis that affects the arteries supplying blood to the heart) and stroke, caused almost 15 million deaths worldwide, making atherosclerosis the leading cause of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis means hardening of the arteries due to the presence of plaques, which are deposits of fatty materials. Atherosclerosis can affect the medium-sized and large arteries of the brain, heart, kidneys, other vital organs, and legs. Atherosclerosis begins when an injured artery wall creates chemical signals that cause certain types of white blood cells (monocytes and T cells) to attach to the wall of the artery. These cells move into the wall of the artery. There they are transformed into foam cells, which collect cholesterol and other fatty materials and trigger growth of smooth muscle cells in the artery wall. In time, these fat-laden foam cells accumulate. They form patchy deposits (atheromas, also called plaques) covered with a fibrous cap in the lining of the artery wall. With time, calcium accumulates in the plaques. Plaques may be scattered throughout medium-sized and large arteries, but they usually start where the arteries branch. Existing treatment options for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease are aimed at lowering Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by either increasing hepatic LDLR expression by using statins and PCSK9 inhibitors, or by reducing cholesterol absorption by using ezetimibe. Further development of therapeutic strategies is warranted due to various drawbacks and limitations using the current therapeutic options.

Multi Layered Microfluidic Devices For In Vitro Large Scale Perfused Capillary Networks

"Organ-on-a-chip” technologies allow recapitulation of organ systems in vitro and can be utilized for drug response and toxicity studies, which are required in preclinical studies. However, current recapitulations via “organ-on-a-chip” technologies are limited because the designs do not fully reflect physiological complexity. To address this, UC Irvine inventors have developed a device to better mimic the vascular network of the circulatory system.

A Delivery System for Percutaneous Delivery and Implantation Of Atrioventricular Heart Valves

The invention is a novel delivery system providing a minimally invasive solution for the delivery and implantation of atrioventricular heart valves. Through its novel mechanical structure, the invention delivers and positions the valve accurately with no need for painful surgeries or bulky tools.

In Utero Prevention Of Congenital Heart Disease By Metabolic Intervention

UCLA researchers in the Department of Molecular Cell and Developmental Biology have discovered a method of preventing congenital heart disease through in utero treatment.

Calcium Scoring Using Parallel Tomosynthesis

Researchers at UCLA in the Department of Radiology have developed a cheaper and safer way to measure coronary calcium levels to predict heart disease.

Potent TMEM16A Small Molecule Treatment for Inflammatory and Reactive Airway Diseases, Asthma, Hypertension, Pain and Cancer

A novel class of 2-acylamino-cycloalkylthiophene-3-carboxylic acid arylamides (AACTs) as potent TMEM16A inhibitors

Spatio-Temporal Pacing and Recording for Evaluation, Induction, and Mapping of Arrhythmias

Researchers led by Marmar Vaseghi from the School of Medicine at UCLA have developed a high density electrode array to evaluate, induce, and map arrhythmias.

Oral Microsensor Arrays for Remote Monitoring of Salivary Electrolytes for Precision Healthcare

UCLA researchers in the Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery have developed a novel microsensor system for unobtrusive monitoring of oral pH and electrolytes levels. This system is integrated into a data analysis and feedback network for disease prevention and precision care.

A New Catheter Design for Precise Stent Delivery

UCLA researchers in the Department of Radiological Sciences have designed a catheter that increases stent delivery precision.

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