In the United States and most other developed countries, atherosclerosis is the leading cause of illness and death. In 2015, cardiovascular disease, primarily coronary artery disease (atherosclerosis that affects the arteries supplying blood to the heart) and stroke, caused almost 15 million deaths worldwide, making atherosclerosis the leading cause of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis means hardening of the arteries due to the presence of plaques, which are deposits of fatty materials. Atherosclerosis can affect the medium-sized and large arteries of the brain, heart, kidneys, other vital organs, and legs. Atherosclerosis begins when an injured artery wall creates chemical signals that cause certain types of white blood cells (monocytes and T cells) to attach to the wall of the artery. These cells move into the wall of the artery. There they are transformed into foam cells, which collect cholesterol and other fatty materials and trigger growth of smooth muscle cells in the artery wall. In time, these fat-laden foam cells accumulate. They form patchy deposits (atheromas, also called plaques) covered with a fibrous cap in the lining of the artery wall. With time, calcium accumulates in the plaques. Plaques may be scattered throughout medium-sized and large arteries, but they usually start where the arteries branch. Existing treatment options for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease are aimed at lowering Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by either increasing hepatic LDLR expression by using statins and PCSK9 inhibitors, or by reducing cholesterol absorption by using ezetimibe. Further development of therapeutic strategies is warranted due to various drawbacks and limitations using the current therapeutic options.