The leading cause of death worldwide is cardiovascular disease, primarily atherosclerosis, which is recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease. This inflammation occurs within the arterial wall and is initiated in part by the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (OxLDL), which in turn can stimulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. In cellular process of the oxidation of LDL, a number of oxidation-specific neo-epitopes are formed. One such product is malondialdehyde (MDA), produced by degradation by reactive oxygen species, which can further react with acetaldehyde and endogenous proteins, forming malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) adducts. These MAA adducts are immunogenic and have proinflammatory properties. Furthermore, circulating levels of antibodies against MAA adducts have been shown to correlate with atherosclerotic disease and be involved in other diseases, such as liver and neurological diseases.