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Novel Anti-Bacterial, Anti-Fungal Nanopillared Surface

Medical devices are susceptible to contamination by harmful microbes, such as bacteria and fungi, which form biofilms on device surfaces. These biofilms are often resistant to antibiotics and other current treatments, resulting in over 2 million people per year suffering from diseases related to these contaminating microbes. Death rates for many of these diseases are high, often exceeding 50%. Researchers at UCI have developed a novel anti-bacterial and anti-fungal biocomposite that incorporates a nanopillared surface structure that can be applied as a coating to medical devices.

A Method for Inhibition of de novo Lipogenesis

The obesity epidemic currently afflicting the US and other developed countries has resulted in a marked increase in the incidence of the metabolic syndrome and its associated pathologies, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), estimated to affect 30% of Americans. Although NAFLD is characterized by lipid droplet buildup in hepatocytes, it is not accompanied by liver damage, inflammation, and fibrosis unless combined with other risk factors, such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress or mitochondrial dysfunction. In the context of simple, nonsymptomatic liver steatosis, ER stress or mitochondrial dysfunction trigger nonalcoholic steatohepatits (NASH), a serious disease that can progress to liver cirrhosis, resulting in loss of liver function, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the most deadly cancers. The obesity epidemic currently afflicting the US and other developed countries has resulted in a marked increase in the incidence of the metabolic syndrome and its associated pathologies, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), estimated to affect 30% of Americans. Although NAFLD is characterized by lipid droplet buildup in hepatocytes, it is not accompanied by liver damage, inflammation, and fibrosis unless combined with other risk factors, such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress or mitochondrial dysfunction. In the context of simple, nonsymptomatic liver steatosis, ER stress or mitochondrial dysfunction trigger nonalcoholic steatohepatits (NASH), a serious disease that can progress to liver cirrhosis, resulting in loss of liver function, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the most deadly cancers.

Pancreatic Differentiation Process

Diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Islet transplantation is a suitable therapy for diabetes, but the scarceness of islet donors makes this approach practically impossible in a higher scale. Promising alternative cell sources for treating diabetes comes from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and numerous groups have generated functional insulin-producing cells in vitro using stepwise differentiation protocols that mimic pancreatic development, including from diabetic patients. However, the limited transcriptomic data on these cells indicate that there remain marked differences between the most mature hESC-derived cells and primary human adult beta cells. Therefore, improvements in methodologies for proper maturation of beta-cells in vitro continues to be an intense area of research.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Inflammatory Disease by Glycan Profiling of High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)

Researchers at the University of California, Davis have developed a method for diagnosing an individual patient’s risk of inflammatory disease based on glycan profiling of high density lipoprotein (HDL). The resulting profile is then used to recommend a treatment program of dietary, lifestyle, or pharmaceutical interventions (or combination thereof), to improve health and decrease the risk of inflammation-induced disease by modulating the patient’s HDL glycosylation pattern.

Sieve Container For Contactless Media Exchange For Cell Growth

Media that contains nutrients and growth factors is necessary to grow all types of cells, a process that is widely used in many fields of research. Such media should be routinely changed either to different media or a fresh batch of the same media. This change currently involves either using a pipette to transfer cells from their current dish of media to a new dish, or aspirating the media out of the dish and replacing it with new media. Both methods have inherent risks to stressing and damaging the cells. Researchers at UCI have developed a unique dish for growing cells that allows for safer aspiration of the old media, which reduces stress and damage to the cells.

PAC1 Receptor Agonists for Treatment of Obesity, Diabetes, and Fatty Liver Disease

UCLA researchers have developed novel PAC1 receptor agonists (MAXCAPs) that specifically bind and activate PAC1 receptors to induce satiety and treat multiple metabolic diseases.

Label Free Assessment Of Embryo Vitality

Researchers at UC Irvine developed an independent non-invasive method to distinguish between healthy and unhealthy embryos.

Antisense Oligonucleotides and Drug Conjugates for Obesity and Diabetes Treatment

The obesity epidemic is an ongoing issue leading to significant economic and social burden, in part due to its role in the development of diabetes. Only three DFA-approved drugs for obesity treatment currently exist, none of which are without significant side effects and risks. Researchers at UCI have developed a DNA-based approach that activates metabolism, to target genes only in the fat and liver, causing increased energy expenditure and weight loss without affecting other organs. These present a viable approach to obesity treatment with minimal side effects in comparison to current drug treatments.

Hybridoma Producing Antibodies To C1qRp

Individuals with genetic immunodeficiency, as well as patients with HIV, cancer, and those undergoing chemotherapy or high risk surgery, are at increased risk for infection. C1q, an important component of the immune system, is known to enhance phagocytosis (cell ingestion of harmful bacteria or other materials). Scientists at UCI have developed antibodies to the receptor for C1q, C1qRp, to be used as a target for prophylactic treatments in populations at high risk of infection.

Compositions for Enhancing Beta Cell Maturation, Health, and Function

Beta cell failure is the central cause of type-2 diabetes. Researchers at UCI have developed molecules for treating diabetes that target proteins on the surface of beta cells and induce their clustering. This clustering results in an increase in insulin secretion and content and promotion of beta cell maturation. Furthermore, the clustering effect seen with these compositions may promote both proliferation and the reversal of de-differentiation.

Composition and Methods to Treat Osteoporosis

Most FDA-approved treatments for osteoporosis target osteoclastic bone resorption. Only parathyroid hormone (PTH) derivatives improve bone formation, but they have drawbacks, so new bone-anabolic agents are needed. The Nitric Oxide(NO)/cGMP/protein kinase G (PKG) signaling pathway mediates anabolic effects of estrogens and mechanical stimulation in bone cells by increasing osteoblast proliferation and osteocyte survival. Nitrates, which generate NO, reduce bone loss in estrogen-deficient rats and increase bone mineral density in post-menopausal women. However, nitrates are limited by induction of oxidative stress and development of tolerance, and may increase cardiovascular mortality after long-term use.

Compositions and Methods to Diagnose and Treat Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Using Metabolomics

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a serious and debilitating systemic disease characterized by diverse symptoms including pain, sleep disturbance, neurologic and cognitive changes, as well as impaired immune and autonomic responses. It affects approximately 1-2 million adults in the US, more often in women than men with peak onset of age 30-50. It is very difficult to reach a conclusive diagnosis due to the subjective nature, range of symptoms, and lack of understanding of the etiology and pathogenic mechanisms of CFS.

Small Molecule Generation of Multinucleated and Striated Myofibers from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Equivalent to Adult Skeletal Muscle

Researchers in the UCLA Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics have developed a novel means of generating adult skeletal muscle-equivalent myofibers from human pluripotent stem cells.

Antibodies targeting mammalian Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Proteins (SREBP) 1 and 2

Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Proteins (SREBP) are important factors that control lipid homeostasis in mammals. Researchers at UCI have prepared antibodies that have good affinity and specificity for human SREBP1/2 for use as research tools. These antibodies have application in genetic and immunotherapeutic research areas.

High Performance and Flexible Chemical And Bio Sensors Using Metal Oxide Semiconductors

UCLA researchers in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering have developed a simple method producing thin, sensitive In2O3-based conformal biosensors based on field-effect transistors using facile solution-based processing for future wearable human technologies as well as non-invasive glucose testing.

Enhanced Cell/Bead Encapsulation Via Acoustic Focusing

The invention consists of a multi-channel, droplet-generating microfluidic device with a strategically placed feature. The feature vibrates in order to counteract particle-trapping micro-vortices formed in the device. Counteracting these vortices allows for single particle encapsulation in the droplets formed by the device and makes this technology a good candidate for use in single cell diagnostics and drug delivery systems.

Method of Preventing Bone Loss and Periodontal Disease

A method of controlling mammalian epoxy fatty acids levels in order to regulate the RANK, RANK-L, and OPG anti-inflammatory triad, thereby limiting inflammation, cancer, arthritic disease, and bone loss while promoting bone growth, remodeling, and regeneration.

A Micro/Nanobubble Oxygenated Solutions for Wound Healing and Tissue Preservation

Soft-tissue injuries and organ transplantation are common in modern combat scenarios. Organs and tissues harvested for transplantation need to be preserved during transport, which can be very difficult. Micro and nanobubbles (MNBs) offer a new technology that could supply oxygenation to such tissues prior to transplantation, thus affording better recovery and survival of patients. Described here is a novel device capable of producing MNB solutions that can be used to preserve viability and function of such organs/tissue. Additionally, these solutions may be used with negative pressure wound therapy to heal soft-tissue wounds.

Novel Plant Diterpene Synthases and Their Use for Production of Diteprene Bioproducts

Researchers at the University of California, Davis have developed a diterpene synthase (diTPS) of plant origin that shows a novel enzyme function, and methods for producing natural and novel high-value diterpenoid bioproducts.

Improved Methods for Encapsulation, Culture, and Transplantation of Islet Cells

Diabetes is the 4th leading cause of death in the United States, with more than 3 million Americans currently suffering from Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Islet cell transplantation is a promising treatment for T1D, in which islet cells are obtained from a donor and transplanted into a T1D patient. Researchers at UCI have developed novel methods that increase viability, yield, and long-term survival of islet cells for treatment of T1D.

Generation Of Human Beta Cell Equivalents From Pluripotent Stem Cells In Vitro

This invention describes a robust method to generate functional human beta cell equivalents from pluripotent stem cells in vitro for wide applications in basic research, drug and toxicology screens and as a diabetes cell therapy.

Predicting Weight Loss And Fat Metabolism Using Optical Signal Changes In Fat

Researchers at UCI have developed a novel use of an emerging functional imaging technology, Diffuse Optical Spectroscopic Imaging (DOSI), for monitoring changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (“AT” also known as “fat” tissue), structure and metabolism during weight loss. Changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue structure and metabolism have been shown to correlate with the development of obesity and related metabolic disorders. The invention is a diagnostic tool that assesses the structure and function of fat tissue in vivo.

Novel Compounds Targeting LRH-1 for Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Type II Diabetes, Triple Negative Breast Cancer & Pancreatic Cancer

This technology contains a method for modulating the activity of the nuclear receptor LRH-1 with identified small molecule compounds that may be developed to treat inflammatory bowel disease, Type II diabetes, triple negative breast cancer and pancreatic cancer.

Methods and Compositions of Treating Diabetic Nephropathy and Insulin Resistance

Researchers at the University of California, Davis have developed novel methods and compositions for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy and insulin resistance.

Transposon Vector for Vertebrate & Invertebrate Genetic Manipulation

Background: Therapeutic delivery of genes is a rapidly evolving technique used to treat or prevent a disease at the root of the problem. The global transgenic market is currently $24B, growing at an annual projected rate of 10%. Currently, a variation of this technique is widely used on animals and crops for production of desirable proteins, but this is a heavily infiltrated market. Thus, entering the gene therapy segment is more promising and would enhance the growth of this industry.  Brief Description: UCR Researchers have identified a novel transposon from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. This mobile DNA sequence can insert itself into various functional genes to either cause or reverse mutations. They have successfully developed a transposon vector system that can be used in both unicellular & multicellular organisms, which can offer notable insight to improve current transgenic technologies as well as methods of gene therapy.

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