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Expression Of Heme Biosynthesis And Heme Proteins In Edible Filamentous Fungi

The inventors have overexpressed heme biosynthesis genes in edible filamentous fungi to elevate heme levels beyond the endogenous levels already produced in these organisms. Overexpression of key biosynthetic enzymes, including a Heme Regulatory Motif (HRM) mutant in ALAS, as well as ALAD, UROD, HEMC, UROD, and FC, in different combinations in the edible filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae NSAR1, significantly increased heme levels up to 15-fold above the non-engineered background strain, as assessed by LC-MS. The fungal biomass is red in appearance and is used in meat replacement, including burgers, filets and other whole-cut formulations, bacon, and sausages. The invention gives fungal biomass a meat-like flavor.

(SD2022-045) RUBY Plasmids: A reporter for noninvasively monitoring gene expression and plant transformation

Reporters have been widely used to visualize gene expression, protein localization, and other cellular activities, but the commonly used reporters require special equipment, expensive chemicals, or invasive treatments.

Using Escherichia coli to Produce Human Milk Oligosaccharide Lactodifucotetraose

Researchers at the University of California, Davis have developed a method for producing human milk oligosaccharide lactodifuctotetraose (LDFT) using E. coli.

Use of Ozone and Infrared Heating as a Pre-treatment for Drying Fruit

Sequential ozone and infrared pre-treatments prior to hot air drying of fruit inactivates enzymes responsible for fruit browning, and concurrently reduces microbial contamination risk and air drying time.

Increased Microorganism Alcohol Tolerance Via Transformation of its pntAB Locus

Researchers at the University of California, Davis have developed microorganisms with increased alcohol tolerance by modifying the organisms’ pntAB locus through expression of one or both of its pntA/pntB genes.

Using Vacuolar Na+/H+ Antiporters to Increase Salt Tolerance in Plants

Researchers at the University of California, Davis have developed a method that increases salt tolerance in plants. This method introduces a polynucleotide that encodes a Na+/H+ transporter polypeptide.

Use of M3K-delta Protein for Improvement of Plant Drought and Salinity Stress Resistance

The response of plants to reduced water availability is controlled by a complex osmotic stress and abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent signal transduction network. The core ABA signaling components are snf1-related protein kinase2s (SnRK2s) which are activated by ABA-dependent inhibition of type 2C protein phosphatases and by an unknown ABA-independent osmotic stress signaling pathway. Limited water availability is one of the key factors that negatively impacts crop yields. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the signal transduction network it activates, enhance plant drought tolerance through stomatal closure, and inhibition of seed germination and growth. As plants are constantly exposed to changing water conditions, reversibility and robustness of the ABA signal transduction cascade is important for plants to balance growth and drought stress resistance. Core ABA signaling components have been established the ABA receptors PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE (PYR/PYL) or REGULATORY COMPONENT OF ABA RECEPTOR (RCAR) inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) resulting in the activation of the SnRK2 protein kinases SnRK2.2, 2.3 and OST1/SnRK2.6 . However, it has remained unclear whether direct autophosphorylation or trans-phosphorylation by unknown protein kinases re-activates these SnRK2 protein kinases in response to stress. The osmotic stress sensing mechanism and upstream signal transduction mechanisms leading to SnRK2 activation remain largely unknown in plants.

Spray Dry Method for Calcium Cross-linked Alginate Encapsulation of Biological and Chemical Moieties via the Use of Chelating Agents

Researchers at the University of California, Davis have developed a one-step spray dry calcium cross-linked alginate encapsulation process where the calcium is released from a chelating agent.

Low-Cost Paper-Based Microfluidic Diagnostic Device

Prof. Mulchandani and his colleagues from the University of California, Riverside have developed a new paper-based microfluidic platform for the simple and low-cost fabrication of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-based chemiresistive nanobiosensor arrays for multianalyte sensing from a single small volume sample that may be used as point-of-care diagnostic for a variety of purposes, including healthcare, food safety, environment, etc. This device is created by utilizing a wax printer to construct well-defined hydrophobic barriers for equal splitting and delivery of fluid and an inkjet printer to fabricate chemiresistors using a water-based SWNT ink on a paper substrate. Currently, the quantitative and selective detection of both human serum albumin (HSA) and human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) simultaneously in urine has been demonstrated by UCR. This paper-based chemiresistive biosensor is easy to fabricate, and designed for cost-effective, rapid, sensitive and selective detection of  analyte(s) of interest. This technology provides a platform for automated, disposable paper-based point-of-care diagnostics with multiplexed detection capability and microfluidic controls. Fig 1: A 3D microfluidic multiplexed paper-based biosensor array device.

Improved Plant Regeneration Method Using GRFs, GIFs or Chimeric GRF-GIF Proteins

Researchers at the University of California, Davis and the Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology of Rosario in Argentina have collaborated to develop methods for improving plant regeneration efficiency using transformations via a GRF, a GIF, or a GRF-GIF chimera. 

Milk Fat Globules As A Universal Delivery System

Researchers at the University of California, Davis have developed methods that utilize molecules encapsulated in milk fat globules and plant oleosomes to deliver bioactive compounds for a variety of applications.

Tracking Diet And Nutrition with a Wearable Bio-Iot

Faculty at UC Irvine have invented a wearable biosensor that quantifies macronutrients such as sugar, salt, fat, protein, and water consumed by the wearer.  It may be used much like a fitness tracker for self-monitoring and promotion of healthy dietary choices.

Haploid-Induction in CRISPR Susceptible Plants

Researchers at the University of California, Davis have developed a method to produce haploid progeny plants from transgenic and wild-type plants that only carry chromosomes from the wild-type gamete.

Early Diagnosis and Treatment for Citrus Greening Disease

University of California, Riverside researcher, Prof. Hailing Jin, has shown that several citrus small RNAs are induced upon infection by Candidatius Liberibacter asiaticus (Las).  These miRNAs and siRNAs would enable the early diagnosis of HLB in citrus trees and nursery stocks.  In addition to the identification of the miRNA biomarker, Prof. Jin also discovered that treating Las infected trees with phosphorus oxyanion improved fruit production.  These studies of the improvement in yield in HLB infected citrus was demonstrated in a 3-year field trial in Florida.  Fig. 1 shows the relative expression levels of miRNA399 in HLB infected citrus. Infected trees express high levels of miRNA 399. Fig. 2 shows leaves from trees that did or did not receive phosphorus oxyanion treatment over a one year period. Leaves treated with phosphorus oxyanion are healthier than leaves from untreated trees.

Synthetic Algal Promoters as a Tool for Increasing Nuclear Gene Expression in Green Algae

Algae have enormous potential as bio-factories for the efficient production of a wide array of high-value products, and eventually as a source of renewable biofuels. However, tools for engineering the nuclear genomes of algae remain scarce and limited in functionality, in part due to lack of strong promoters.

Portable waterborne pathogen detector

The inventors at the University of California, Irvine, have developed an automated, easy-to-use digital PCR system that can be used at the time of sample collection, making it highly effective in microbial pathogen analysis in resource-limited settings and extreme conditions.

A Method For Screening Drugs, Nutritional Supplements And Probiotics For Their Ability To Enhance Or Disrupt The Gut Barrier

The gut is a complex environment; the gut mucosa maintains immune homeostasis under physiological circumstances by serving as a barrier that restricts access of trillions of microbes, diverse microbial products, food antigens and toxins to the largest immune system in the body. The gut barrier is comprised of a single layer of epithelial cells, bound by cell-cell junctions, and a layer of mucin that covers the epithelium. Loosening of the junctions induced either by exogenous or endogenous stressors, compromises the gut barrier and allows microbes and antigens to leak through and encounter the host immune system, thereby generating inflammation and systemic endotoxemia. An impaired gut barrier (e.g. a leaky gut) is a major contributor to the initiation and/or progression of various chronic diseases including, but not limited to, metabolic endotoxemia, type II diabetes, fatty liver disease, obesity, atherosclerosis and inflammatory bowel diseases. Despite the growing acceptance of the importance of the gut barrier in diseases, knowledge of the underlying mechanism(s) that reinforce the barrier when faced with stressors is incomplete, and viable and practical strategies for pharmacologic modulation of the gut barrier remain unrealized.

Quantum Dot Enabled Detection Of Escherichia Coli Using A Cell-Phone

UCLA researchers in the Department of Electrical Engineering have developed a platform that can detect E. coli using a cell phone.

Rapid, Portable And Cost-Effective Yeast Cell Viability And Concentration Analysis Using Lensfree On-Chip Microscopy And Machine Learning

UCLA researchers in the Department of Electrical Engineering have developed a new portable device to rapidly measure yeast cell viability and concentration using a lab-on-chip design.

Update To Degradable Trehalose Glycopolymers

UCLA researchers in the Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry have designed an improved version of trehalose-based glycopolymer as a degradable alternative to PEG for the purpose of stabilizing a protein during storage and transport.

Microbial Mediators Of The Beneficial Effects Of The Ketogenic Diet

UCLA researchers have identified a strategy to manipulate the gut microbiome to mimic the effects of a ketogenic diet, as a treatment for CNS disorders and metabolic diseases.

Process For Recycling Surfactant In Nanoemulsion Production

UCLA researchers in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry have developed a novel method to separate and recycle surfactants used in the manufacturing of nanoemulsions.

Xylosyl-Xylitol Oligomers And Their Microbial And Enzymatic Productions

Lignocellulosic biomass derived from plant cell walls is the most abundant raw material for biofuels and renewable chemicals production.  Hemicellulose comprises about 30% of the total weight of lignocellulosic biomass. In contrast to cellulose, hemicellulose components are readily depolymerized into short oligomers and released into the liquid phase during pretreatment.  It is of great interest to convert the released hemicellulose components into fuels or other value-add chemicals for building an economical biomass conversion process. There are ten times more microorganisms than human cells in a healthy adult.  The symbiosis between the microbiome and human organs is increasingly recognized as a major player in health and well-being.  Xylooligosaccharides and xylitol, both derived from hemicellulose, can benefit gut flora and oral flora, respectively. Xylooligosaccharides (XOS, also called xylodextrins) are naturally occurring oligosaccharides, found in bamboo shoots, fruits, vegetables, milk and honey.  Industrial scale production of XOS can be carried out with much less expensive lignocellulosic materials by hydrothermal treatment or enzymatic hydrolysis.  A broad range of applications of XOS have been demonstrated, including as functional food, prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal infections, animal feed for fish and poultry, agricultural yield enhancer and ripening agent, and as active agents against osteoporosis, pruritus cutaneous, otitis, and skin and hair disorders.  In the current market, the most important applications of XOS correspond to ingredients for functional foods as a prebiotic, or formulated as synbiotics. XOS has been shown to promote beneficial bacteria Bifidobacterium adolescentis growth in vitro and in vivo.  It has been estimated that the prebiotics market will reach $4.8 billion by 2018. Xylitol is another hemicellulose-derived compound beneficial to human health.  For many bacteria and yeasts, the uptake of non-utilizable xylitol interferes with hexose utilization, which helps the human body to rebuild a healthy microbiome.  Xylitol has been used to prevent middle ear infections and tooth decay.  In addition, xylitol possesses 33% fewer calories but similar sweetness compared to sucrose and has been widely used as a substitute sweetener.  While chemical hydrogenation of xylose remains the major industrial method of xylitol production, microbial fermentation has become more popular in the newly built plants due to lower conversion cost. There exists a need for improved methods of producing xylooligosaccharides and related compounds, such as xylooligosaccharides with xylitol components.    UC researchers discovered a new set of fungal metabolic intermediates, named xylosyl-xylitol oligomers and developed the enzymatic and microbial fermentation method to produce such compounds. The detection and purification methods have also been developed.

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