Ocular degenerative diseases including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinitis pigmentosa, glaucoma, and corneal endothelial dystrophy (CED) cause irreversible vision loss and affect millions of people worldwide. Currently, there is no effective drug intervention. Grafting healthy eye cells to replenish the diseased tissues such as retina represents a promising therapeutic approach. However, previous attempts at using primary human eye cells have met with limited success due to the limited expansion capacity and differentiation potential of adult progenitors or difficulty of obtaining sufficient human fetal retinal progenitors, and possible ethical concerns. Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), including human embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represent promising renewable donor sources for cell-based replacement therapy. Nevertheless, PSCs themselves are not suitable for direct transplantation in clinical applications due to their tendency to form teratomas and low efficiency in repopulating host tissues with desirable reprogrammed cell types in vivo. While the advancement of clinical trials of hESC-derived RPE transplants for treatment of patients with Stargardt's macular dystrophy and AMD is encouraging to the field, there is a great need for methods of generating unlimited other specialized eye cells effectively in vitro for treating blindness due to the loss of photoreceptors, RGCs and CECs. Therefore, there is a major interest in development of in vitro expandable cell sources for engineering corneal endothelium.