Researchers at the University of California Davis have developed a novel method to produce haploid plants through seeds. This method induces genome elimination (from one parent in a cross) with a precise mutation, rather than by culturing haploid cells or by crossing distantly related plants.
Plant breeding relies on screening numerous plants to identify novel, desirable characteristics. Very large numbers of progeny from crosses often must be grown and evaluated over several years in order to select one or a few plants with a desired combination of traits.
Standard breeding of diploid plants often requires screening and back-crossing of a large number of plants to achieve the desired genotype. One solution to the problem of screening large numbers of progeny has been to produce haploid plants, the chromosomes of which can be doubled using colchicine or other means to achieve instantly homozygous, doubled-haploid plants.
With doubled haploid production systems, homozygosity is achieved in one generation. Thus, the breeder can eliminate the numerous cycles of inbreeding necessary to achieve practical levels of homzygosity using conventional methods. Indeed, true homozygosity for all traits is not achievable by conventional breeding methods.
Existing methods of generating haploid plants have numerous disadvantages. Culturing of haploid cells is expensive and laborious, and some species have proven recalcitrant to this technique. Crossing to a distantly related species (wide crosses) causes genome elimination in only a small number of species, and almost always requires embryo rescue in vitro to generate viable plants. Haploid-inducing lines in maize are genetically complex and yield haploids at low efficiency. All current methods may be extremely dependent on genotype. UC Davis researchers have developed a method of inducing haploids in a cross between plants of the same genotype which is based on exploitation of a universal feature of eukaryote chromosomes and which yields haploid plants from seeds.
This novel technology has multiple applications, including:
Using this innovative method:
|United States Of America||Issued Patent||8,618,354||12/31/2013||2010-030|
Additional Patents Pending
haploid, plant, cultivar, breeding, transgenic, non-transgenic