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Development of a New Biomarker for Diagnosis of Cardiovascular Disease: Monoclonal Antibody to Oxidized Cholesteryl Esters

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The primary prevention of CVD is dependent upon the ability to identify high-risk individuals long before the development of overt events. This highlights the need for accurate risk stratification. An increasing number of novel biomarkers have been identified to predict cardiovascular events. Biomarkers play a critical role in the definition, prognostication, and decision-making regarding the management of cardiovascular events. There are several promising biomarkers that might provide diagnostic and prognostic information. The myocardial tissue-specific biomarker cardiac troponin, high-sensitivity assays for cardiac troponin, and heart-type fatty acid binding potential help diagnose myocardial infarction (MI) in the early hours following symptoms. Inflammatory markers such as growth differentiation factor-15, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and uric acid predict MI and death and many others. However, there is a high unmet medical need for the more specific biomarkers that reflect different aspects of the development of atherosclerosis. 

Development of Novel Fluorescent Puromycin Derivatives

Puromycin is an aminonucleoside antibiotic produced by the bacterium Streptomyces alboniger. Its mode of action is to inhibit protein synthesis by disrupting peptide transfer on ribosomes, leading to premature chain termination during protein translation. Puromycin blocks protein synthesis in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes and is routinely used as a research tool in cell culture. The native Puromycin is also used assays such as mRNA display. As such, derivatives have been synthesized in which the amino acid of the 3' end of adenosine based antibiotics is altered to change the compound's antibiotic activity. Other compounds have been synthesized with differing amino acids and functionalities to examine the effect it has on bacterial viability. The majority do not show useful absorption or emission profiles. What is needed is a method to track the compounds in biological systems.

Methods To Biosynthesize Kainic Acid And Analogues Thereof

Kainic acid is a chemical first derived from seaweed. Neuroscientists routinely use Kainic acid to simulate brain degeneration in lab experiments. Certain inotropic receptors in the brain--known as kainate receptors--are selectively activated only by kainic acid. Research into kainate receptors helps researchers to understand Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, and other brain disorders. Some scientists use kainic acid to find answers to more fundamental questions such as the function of glutamate receptors. Currently, there are two procedures for generating kainic acid commercially. The first involves the farming and collection of kainic acid-containing seaweed and that method is impacted by seasonal fluctuations of seaweed growth and kainic acid production. The second involves synthetic processes, but the current procedures generally require at least 6 synthetic steps with yields less than 40% and generate environmentally toxic byproducts including heavy metals, cyanides, or halogenated organics.

Isobutanol Production Using Metabolically Engineered Escherichia Coli

UCLA researchers at the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering have engineered Escherichia coli bacteria to produce isobutanol from glucose.

Trehalose Hydrogels For Stabilization And Delivery Of Proteins

UCLA researchers in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry have developed a novel trehalose hydrogel to help stabilize proteins for drug delivery.

Hydrogel For Engineered Immune Response

UCLA researchers in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering have developed a novel biomaterial that can be used as a therapeutic for cancer, wound healing and other diseases.

One Step Process of Forming Complex Coacervation During Spray Drying

Researchers at the University of California, Davis have developed a formation of complex coacervate microparticles by spray drying.

Methods Comprising Immune System Modulation With Microporous Annealed Particle Gels

UCLA researchers have developed a novel microporous annealed particle (MAP) scaffold that acts as both a tissue growth scaffold and an immune modulatory system. The technology permits continuous, time-encoded, modulation of the immune system delivered injection/implantation of fabricated scaffold, comprised of the MAP gel technology.

Integrin Stimulating Materials For The Normalization Of Diseased Vasculature

UCLA researchers in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering have developed a novel a novel α3/α5β1 integrin binding site integrated endothelial growth factor (VEGF) delivery hydrogel that directs therapeutic vessel regeneration and reduces VEGF induced vascular permeability.

Preparation Of Functionalized Polypeptides, Peptides, And Proteins By Alkylation Of Thioether Groups

UCLA researchers in the Departments of Chemistry, Physics, and Bioengineering, led by Dr. Tim Deming of the Bioengineering Department, have developed new methods for adding different functional groups on polypeptides.  The UCLA researchers have used this method to create a platform to create and modify nanoscale vesicles and hydrogels for use in nanoscale drug delivery particles, injectable drug depots, imaging and detection, industrial biomaterials, and wound management.

New Form Of Hybrid Materials

Advances in science are driven by new discoveries which can pave the way to new create new research directions. For example, crystals by the nature of their order in three-dimensional space, cannot flex or expand, but with the integration of macromolecular ferritin crystals with hydrogel polymers can change their dimensions.

Development Of Surface Enhanced Graphene Oxide For Ubiquitous Antibacterial Coatings

UCLA researchers in the Department of Medicine have developed a novel graphene oxide (GO) based material with significantly enhanced antibacterial effects with maximized surface display of carbon radicals.

Thaw Gelation Process for Encapsulating Cell Spheroids

Researchers at the University of California Davis have developed a thaw gelation process for the formation of cell spheroids within a hydrogel shell.

Novel Non-Peptidomimetic Prenyltransferase Inhibitors

UCLA Researchers in the Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry and School of Medicine have synthesized a series of small molecule therapeutics against GGTase-I and GGTase-II, both of which are critical oncology drug targets.

Antibody-Interferon Fusion Proteins For Enhancing Adoptive T Cell Therapies For The Treatment Of Cancer

UCLA researchers in the Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics have developed a novel combination therapy for enhanced efficacy of adoptive T cell therapies.

A Novel Renilla-Derived Luciferase with Enhanced Activity and Stability

UCLA researchers in the Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology have developed a novel luciferase variant with enhanced stability and activity.

3D Scaffolds For Mesoderm Differentiation

Researchers led by Benjamin Wu from the Departments of Bioengineering and Pathology & Laboratory Medicine have developed an implantable scaffolding that can create hematopoietic stem cells from pluripotent stem cells in vivo.

Reagent to Label Proteins via Lysine Isopeptide Bonds

Researchers in the UCLA Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and the University of Texas-Medical Center, Houston Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics have modified the Corynebacterium diphtheriae (C. diphtheriae) sortase enzyme so that it can be used as a bioconjugation reagent in vitro.

Bioengineered Thymic Aggregates For Implantation

Researchers led by Gay Crooks from the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at UCLA have bioengineered a thymus implant to treat immune diseases.

Cyanide, Sulfide, Methane-Thiol Antidote

Cyanide is a highly toxic agent that inhibits mitochondrial cytochrome-c oxidase, thereby depleting cellular ATP. Cyanide exposure contributes to smoke inhalation deaths in fires and could be used as a weapon of mass destruction. Cobalamin (vitamin B12) binds cyanide with a relatively high affinity and is used to treat smoke inhalation victims. Cobinamide, the penultimate compound in cobalamin biosynthesis, binds cyanide with about 1010 greater affinity than cobalamin and is 5-10 times more potent than cobalamin in rescuing animals from cyanide poisoning. Cobinamide is also an effective intra- and extracellular nitric oxide scavenger. Currently, three cyanide antidotes are currently available in the United States: nitrites, thiosulfate, and hydroxocobalamin. All three drugs are approved only for intravenous (IV) administration, and thus are not suitable for treating mass casualties as could occur after a major industrial accident or a terrorist attack. Thus, new formulations for cyanide exposure treatment that are faster and easier to administer are needed.

Improved HEV Nanoparticles for Oral Delivery

Researchers at the University of California, Davis have engineered a functionalized Hepatitis E Niral Nanoparticles (HEVNP) with gold-nanoclusters, enhancing its stability and making it highly biologically accessible, non-toxic, and suitable for oral delivery.

Bioactive Adhesive Dental Restorative Cement

Researchers led by Alireza Moshaverinia from the School of Dentistry at UCLA have developed a novel restorative dental cement that promotes remineralization of damaged teeth.

Therapeutic Approach To Prevent Or Alleviate Drug-, Noise- And Age-Related Hearing Loss

UCLA researchers in the Department of Head and Neck Surgery have developed a novel therapeutic approach to treating hearing loss using inflammation-resolving molecules.

NANOPORE MEMBRANE DEVICE AND METHODS OF USE THEREOF

Several chemical, physical, and biological techniques have been used for delivering macromolecules into living cells. Delivery of biomolecules into living cells is essential for biomedical research and drug development as well as genome editing. However, conventional methods of delivery of biomolecules such as viral vectors, cell penetrating peptides, cationic lipids, positive charged polymers, bulk electroporation, and microinjection pose several challenges. Such challenges include safety concerns, toxicity, damage to the cells, limited loading capacity, low delivery efficiencies, low cell viabilities, low cell throughput, high cellular perturbation, and high costs.  Thus, there is a need for delivery devices and methods that allow for permeabilization of the cell membrane to facilitate delivery of biomolecules into cells.   UC Berkeley researchers have developed a universal delivery electroporation system that makes cell transfection very simple for all of types of cells. The technology can be used to replace conventional cellular delivery methods such as cationic lipid, positive charged polymer and bulk electroporation as well as microinjection.  The system can deliver biomolecules (e.g., DNA, RNA, proteins, nucleic acid-protein complexes (e.g., RNPs)) or other reagents into all cell types, including T-cells, which cannot be efficiently transfected with conventional approaches.  

Cas12-mediated DNA Detection Reporter Molecules

Class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems are streamlined versions in which a single Cas protein (an effector protein, e.g., a type V Cas effector protein such as Cpf1) bound to RNA is responsible for binding to and cleavage of a targeted sequence. The programmable nature of these minimal systems has facilitated their use as a versatile technology that continues to revolutionize the field of genome manipulation.    Cas12 is an RNA-guided protein that binds and cuts any matching DNA sequence. Binding of the Cas12-CRISPR RNA (crRNA) complex to a matching single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) or double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule activates the protein to non-specifically degrade any ssDNA in trans. Cas12a-dependent target binding can be coupled to a reporter molecule to provide a direct readout for DNA detection within a sample.  UC Berkeley researchers have developed compositions, systems, and kits having labeled single stranded reporter DNA molecules that provide a sensitive readout for detection of a target DNA. 

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