Current systems for structural health monitoring use a sensing network and a basic data analyzer to measure different response parameters of the structure. When any of the response parameters exceed a predefined threshold, the system automatically sends out warning signals, as illustrated in Figure 1. This type of systems suffers from the following important drawbacks:1. This type of systems only measures the global responses of the structure (e.g., maximum displacement of the floors relative to the base level). Considering the complexity of the structural system behavior, these global measurements can miss key information about the true state of damage in the structure and the structural serviceability. Figure 1: Current system for structural health monitoring.2. Since this type of system is not model-based, it cannot provide any detailed information on the location, type, severity, and extent of damage. As a consequence, this type of system is only useful to determine whether the building should be evacuated for further inspection or can continue operation. This type of system may be prove to false negative readings though, implying a structure is safe when it actually may not be. 3. Increasing the accuracy of this type of systems requires deployment of a dense sensing network (i.e., using large numbers of different sensors to monitor the response of all parts, sub- assemblies, and components of the structure), which is an impractical solution. The dense sensing network results in high installation and maintenance costs and reduced system robustness due to possible sensor mal-functioning or erroneous reading.Currently, the only applicable and useful method for monitoring the state of health of civil structures and identifying the potential damages after a catastrophic event is visual screening and inspection, which is a subjective, time-consuming, and expensive. An accurate inspection sometimes requires destruction of architectural and nonstructural components such as claddings, partition walls, facades, and removal of contents or equipment. Moreover, visual inspection cannot be performed during the short critical time following a catastrophic event such as an earthquake, during which the fast and accurate evaluation of the state of health and serviceability of critical structures such as hospitals and bridges are vital.