Hybrid Nanostructured Materials For Rechargeable Energy Storage Technologies

Tech ID: 32649 / UC Case 2014-173-0

Patent Status

Country Type Number Dated Case
United States Of America Issued Patent 10,211,448 02/19/2019 2014-173

Full Description


Graphitic anodes in current Lithium-ion batteries (LIB) are limited to theoretical capacity of 372 mAh/gram. Silicon based anodes are identified to be the next generation for LIBs due to their theoretical capacity limit of 4200 mAh/gram. Obstacles that delay the adoption of Lithium-Silicon batteries are:

  • Significant increase in volume of the silicon anode during alloying and de-alloying process.
  • Large solid electrolyte interface layer that quickly kill the performance of the electrode.

Current Invention

In this patented technology, UCR research team led by Prof. Cengiz Ozkan describe an innovative, 3-dimensional silicon decorated Cone shaped Carbon nanotube Clusters (Si-CCC) architecture and its application as LIB anode. The pillared carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene nanostructure are grown by a 2-step, Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process on a copper foil – which is a commonly used current collector in batteries. Button type half cells, with Si-CCC anodes and Lithium metal cathodes, were assembled and tested. The cells achieved a very high, fully reversible capacity of 1,644.4 mAh/gram. After 230 charge-discharge cycles, the cells had a capacity of 1050 mAh/gram and exhibited 100% coulombic efficiency.

Synthesis of silicon decorated, cone shaped CNT clusters

Synthesis of silicon decorated, cone shaped CNT clusters

Capacity and coulombic efficiency

Cycling performance and coulombic efficiency of the PGN electrode at a current density of 1000 mA/gram


The advantages of this invention are:

  • Seamless connection of the graphene and pillared CNTs facilitates thermal and charge transfer.
  • Cone shaped nature of the Si-CCC architecture enhances the rate performance.
  • Si-CCC architecture is a binder free process for preparing electrodes for LIBs.

Suggested uses

  • Lithium-Ion Batteries.
  • Electrochemical energy storage devices.

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Other Information


Lithium ion battery, Energy storage, Lithium silicon, Carbon Nanotube, Silicon carbon cluster, Graphene

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