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Patient-Specific Ct Scan-Based Finite Element Modeling (FEM) Of Bone

This invention is a software for calculating the maximum force a bone can support. The offered method provides an accurate assessment of how changes in a bone due to special circumstances, such as osteoporosis or a long duration space flight, might increase patient’s risk of fracture.

A Method For Determining Characteristic Planes And Axes Of Bones And Other Body Parts, And Application To Registration Of Data Sets

The invention is a method for deriving an anatomical coordinate system for a body part (especially bone) to aid in its characterization. The method relies on 3-D digital images of an anatomical object, such as CT- or MR-scans, to objectively, precisely, and reliably identify its geometry in a computationally efficient manner. The invention is a great improvement over the current practice of subjective, user-dependent manual data entry and visualization of bones and organs. The applications for well-defined anatomical coordinate systems include robotic surgeries, models for bone density studies, and construction of statistical anatomical data sets.

Automated Liquid Volume Handler for Rapid Concentration of Radioisotopes

UCLA researchers in the Department of Pharmacology have developed a novel, rapid, and fully automated method of concentrating radioisotopes to allow production of PET imaging probes on a clinical scale.

Two And Three Dimensional DNA Antenna And Photonic Transfer Nanostructures

Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) is a mechanism which describes the photonic energy transfer between two light-sensitive molecules (chromophores). A donor chromophore, initially in its electronic excited state, may transfer energy in the form of undetectable virtual photons to an acceptor chromophore. FRET has been widely used to study the structure and dynamic of biomolecules. Specifically, by using dyes conjugated on a DNA strand, FRET can be applied to molecular sensors in which fluorescence signals change as a result of altered distance between donor and acceptor chromophores due to hybridization or enzymatic reactions. In addition, the DNA strand can act as a photonic wire along which the photonic energy is transferred. However, because fluorescence is highly influenced by environmental conditions and surrounding molecules, the energy transfer from a donor dye conjugated on a DNA strand is easily quenched by the dye-DNA and dye-dye interaction, often lowering FRET efficiency to the acceptor dye. Furthermore, when multiple chromophore/fluorescent donors and acceptor groups/entities are arranged on 2D and 3D DNA structures, contact and other quenching mechanisms can occur which greatly reduce the long range FRET efficiency. This rapid loss of long distance FRET efficiency greatly reduces the viability of DNA based photonic wires and antennas and negates any useful or practical applications. Therefore quenching should be resolved in order to apply the molecular FRET system to the device fabrication with efficient energy transfer.

Preparation and Modification of Lignin

Researchers at the University of California, Davis, with co-inventors, have developed a process for producing a mesoporous lignin directly from a biorefinery process.

Antibodies for the Detection of Toxoplasma Gondii Oocysts

Researchers at the University of California, Davis have developed the first monoclonal antibodies that recognize, bind to, and can be used to concentrate oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii.

Manufacturing of Tungsten Scandate Nano-Composite Powder via Sol-Gel Method for High Current Density and Long-Life Cathodes

The researchers at University of California, Davis have developed a new process for manufacturing tungsten scandate nano-composite powder that produces high current density and long-life cathodes for high-power terahertz vacuum electron devices. Scandate tungsten nano-composite cathodes enable advancement of microwave sources that bridge the "Terahertz gap."

CRISPR/Cas9 Ribonucleoprotein Delivery In Vivo Using Gold Nanoparticles

The Cas9/Crispr gene editing technology has the potential to revolutionize biology and medicine, due to its unique ability to generate site-specific DNA recombination and gene correction. However, the delivery of Cas9 still remains a problem, and this limits the scientific and medical applications of Cas9. Current methods for delivering Cas9 are primarily based on viral gene therapy, which is problematic due to toxicity from sustained expression and random genomic integration. Non-viral gene therapy has also been investigated for delivering Cas9, guide RNA and donor DNA into cells, however this is ineffective in numerous cell types, such as ES stem cells and primary cell lines, which represent the major applications for Cas9 gene editing.   Researchers at UC Berkeley have developed a novel delivery vehicle, based on gold nanoparticles, termed CRISPR-Gold, which can be used to simultaneously deliver Cas9 protein, guide RNA and donor oligonucleotides into target cells and efficiently induce site directed DNA recombination. CRISPR-Gold is composed of nanometer sized gold nanoparticles conjugated with DNA, which have Cas9 protein, guide RNA, donor oligonucleotides and endosomal disruptive polymers complexed to them. Researchers have shown that CRISPR-Gold can deliver Cas9 protein, guide RNA and donor oligonucleotides into numerous cell types, including, stem cells, iPS cells and muscle progenitor cells, and induce gene editing and gene corrections with an efficiency that is significantly better than existing delivery vehicles. Additionally researchers have shown that CRISPR-Gold can perform gene editing in vivo and correct DNA  mutations in mice via homologous recombination.  

Multi-Channel Microfluidic Piezoelectric Impact Printer

High-throughput, automated, large-scale microarray format assay in a short time frame and at low cost.

Electrical Transport Spectroscopy: An On-Chip Nanoelectronic Based Characterization Method

Researchers in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at UCLA have recently developed electrical transport spectroscopy (ETS).

Cryogenic 3D Printing

3D printing uses additive processes, which add layers on top of each other, to generate shapes. In order to do this, the material used undergoes a phase transformation, from a malleable state to a solid state. This process incorporates the new layer onto the previous layer. Most currently used 3D printing technologies use a phase transition temperature that is higher than the room temperature, which allows printing in air at room temperature. The 3D printing device heats the material to a malleable form, then deposits a layer that cools into a solid. This method does not, however, allow sufficient structural or temporal control for printing biological materials.   UC Berkeley researchers have developed methods and devices for cryogenic 3D printing that enables printing with biological materials. Complex structures can be generated when the object is immersed in a liquid coolant, and this immersion also ensures that already printed layers remain at a constant temperature.  

Bio-Imaging Of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity

Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity is essential for generating cancer stem cells and drug resistance in cancer stem cells, which are the primary cause of treatment failure in oncology. Similarly, ALDH activity also plays a therapeutic role in a variety of inflammatory diseases and is needed for tissue regeneration and wound healing after a myocardial infarct, the detoxification of xenobiotics in the liver, the alleviation of pain, and the prevention of Parkinson’s disease. There is therefore great interest in developing small molecules that can inhibit or activate ALDH activity, however, this is currently challenging because of the inability to measure ALDH activity in cells.  The current method measures ALDH in cells indirectly, via ALDH substrates that are unable to distinguish between non-specific accumulation and genuine ALDH activity, and can only indirectly measure ALDH activity via flow cytometry.  UC Berkeley researchers have developed bio-imaging agents to image ALDH activity in cells. The new agents can spectrally distinguish between the small electronegativity differences between an aldehyde and a carboxylate and are exceptionally sensitive to changes in electronegativity.   

Measurement Of Blood Flow Dynamics With X-Ray Computed Tomography: Dynamic Ct Angiography

This invention identifies a method to accurately measure flow dynamics, such as velocity and volume, from Computed Tomography scans of blood vessels in a patient.

Beta-Amyloid Plaque Imaging Agents

Current imaging agents for labelling β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), which are indicators for Alzheimer’s disease, suffer from drawbacks such as (but not limited to) non-specific binding, low target to non-target ratio, instability, and inefficient labelling. Researchers at UC Irvine have developed an imaging agent and its derivatives for labelling β-amyloid plaques and NFTs that overcome these problems and also provide therapeutic properties in vivo for the neural tissues. The labelling agent also binds to norepinephrine transporters (NET) and are taken up into the cells via the NET, therefore serving as suitable agents for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes involving disorders or conditions associated with NET.

Lateral Cavity Acoustic Transducer Based Microfluidic Switch

The ability for on-chip particle/cell manipulation is important for microfluidic applications. Researchers at UC Irvine have developed a technology that exploits the phenomenon of acoustic microstreaming to manipulate fluid flow and suspended cells/particles in a microfluidic environment.

Multilayer High Density Microwells

Researchers at UC Irvine have developed high density, three dimensional (3D) micro-reactors for digital biology applications. The high-density imaging arrays overcome drawbacks associated with existing high density arrays fabricated on a single surface and the more recent 3D droplet emulsion arrays.

Superresolution Microscopy And Ultrahigh-Throughput Spectroscopy

Current super-resolution microscopy (SRM) methods have excellent spatial resolution, but no spectral information. Issues such as heavy color crosstalk, compromised image quality, and difficulties in aligning 3D coordinates of different color channels mean that high-quality multicolor 3D SRM remains a challenge. Another current imaging technique, single-molecule spectroscopy, is also limited in use because current methods are low throughput, have low spatial resolution, and cannot be used effectively for densely labeled biological samples.   UC Berkeley researchers have developed a 3-D super-resolution microscopy and single molecule spectroscopy system that addresses the issues inherent to both of these imaging techniques. By synchronously measuring the fluorescence spectra and positions of millions of single molecules within minutes, both spectrally resolved SRM and ultrahigh-throughput single-molecule spectroscopy are made possible.

Integrative Approach for the Analysis and Visualization of Static or Dynamic Omic Data, Including Genomic, Proteomic, Gene Expression, and Metabolic Data

The technology is a method for analysis and mapping of a broad range of omic data.It features maps and visualizes interactions between omic data, such as how the circadian metabolome, transcriptome, and proteome operate in concert.With this technology, users can use non-public and public data, per tissue/organ data and data across multiple conditions.

Methods and Compositions for Determining Differences in Taste Perception

People vary dramatically in their taste perception. What one person perceives as mild and pleasant, another will perceive as aversively spicy. Perception of piquancy, sweetness, sourness, temperature, bitterness, and other components of taste all vary across individuals in this way. Some substances, such as cilantro and phenylthiocarbamide, are famously polarizing, producing perceptual experiences that differ radically across individuals. Yet there is no universal system for measuring taste perception; people have a sense for what they like, but they cannot measure it or communicate it to others precisely. This means, for example, that food providers are left almost entirely in the dark, forced to cater to the average and not the individual. To address this need, researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, have created methods and compositions for consumable products to measure individual differences in taste perception. This innovative approach could lead to new products in support of a universal system for measuring taste perception, with an opportunity for consumers and retailers to understand food and beverage preferences in more precise, quantitative terms.

Methods of Monitoring and Manipulating the Fate of Transplanted Cells

Tumor initiation and progression into metastasis are accompanied by complex structural changes in the extracellular matrix and cellular architecture that alters the stiffness in the microenvironment of the cell.

Single-Cell Isoelectric Focusing and pH Gradient Arrays

Post-translational protein modifications, such as glycosylation or phosphorylation, are the level at which this heterogeneity is expressed, and may serve as disease biomarkers. These modifications only result in small molecular mass changes, meaning that standard size-based separation techniques cannot be used. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) is a powerful technique that can resolve a single electrostatic charge difference between protein isoforms, and can be used for the charge-based separation post-translationally modified proteins require. Multiplexed IEF separations are challenging due to the unique chemical environment needed. Although IEF would be ideal for single-cell protein measurement, current techniques rely on specific antibodies to resolve different isoforms, limiting the assays in scope.   Researchers at UC Berkeley have addressed these issues by developing a single-cell isoelectric focusing technique that uses pH gradient arrays. By multiplexing IEF, this technology enables separation of the contents of single cells to get insights into cell heterogeneity while retaining the analytical performance to resolve small charge differences.  

Methods And Utilizations For Tissue Staining And Digital Microscopy

The current state of the art in digital pathology is whole-slide imaging, in which tissues are fixed in formalin, processed and paraffin-embedded, cut, stained with standard reagents for tissue histochemistry, and placed on glass slides.  The glass slides are then scanned to create a digital image of the tissue.  Although this represents the current state-of-the-art, it is a very expensive, and time, and space-consuming process. 

Flowmax: A Computational Lymphocyte Phenotyping Tool For Deriving Cell Biological Insights From CFSE Flow Cytometry Time Courses (2012-234)

Lymphocyte population dynamics within the mammalian immune response have been extensively studied, as they are a predictor of vaccine efficacy, while their misregulation may lead to cancers or autoimmunity. A current experimental approach for tracking lymphocyte population dynamics involves flow cytometry of carboxyfluorescein succimidyl ester (CFSE)-stained cells. First introduced in 1990, CFSE tracking relies on the fact that CFSE is irreversibly bound to proteins in cells, resulting in progressive halving of cellular fluorescence with each cell division. By measuring the fluorescence of thousands of cells at various points in time after stimulation, fluorescence histograms with peaks representing generations of divided cells can be obtained. However, interpreting CFSE data confronts two challenges. In addition to intrinsic biological complexity arising from generation- and cell age-dependent variability in cellular processes, fluorescence signals for a specific generation are not truly uniform due to heterogeneity in (i) staining of founder population, (ii) dye partitioning during division, and (iii) dye clearance from cells over time. Thus, while high-throughput experimental approaches enable population- level measurements, deconvolution of CFSE time courses into biologically-intuitive cellular parameters is susceptible to misinterpretation.

Device for Monitoring Cerebrovascular Autoregulation

Cerebrovascular autoregulation (CVA) refers to the physiological mechanisms that maintain blood flow to the brain at an appropriate level during changes in blood pressure. CVA is a physiological phenomenon of importance to health and therefore, can be used for diagnostics of a very large number of diseases of the brain with a vascular component, such as atheroschelorotic plaque formation, acute hypertension, stroke and concussion. The devices currently used for CVA monitoring are complex, expensive and require an expert for use.   UC Berkeley researchers have developed a scientifically advanced and technologically simple device for monitoring CVA by using the transcranial transmission of very low energy, non-ionizing radiofrequency electromagnetic waves. The technology measures the amplitude and phase change between transcranial induction coils and can monitor in real time and without contact, stimulus triggered, CVA induced changes in the blood quantity and distribution in the brain. The simplicity of the technology makes it suitable for use without substantial medical training and can provide solutions to diagnostics of various diseases of the brain in rural and economically underdeveloped parts of the world. 

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