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Ambient Methane Functionalization Initiated by d0 Metal-Oxo Electrocatalyst

UCLA researchers in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry have developed a new strategy to electrochemically functionalize methane at low activation energies under ambient conditions.

Conductive-Organometallic Framework

UCLA researchers in the Department of Chemistry have developed organic metallic framework (MOF) materials with high porosity and conductivity capabilities.

High Pressure Heat Exchanger Produced by Additive Manufacturing

Researchers at the University of California, Davis and Carnegie Mellon University have developed a new design and fabrication method for high pressure heat exchangers (HX) using additive manufacturing (AM). This method would allow for the creation of primary heat exchanger (PHX) systems with minimal energy loss.

Isobutanol Production Using Metabolically Engineered Escherichia Coli

UCLA researchers at the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering have engineered Escherichia coli bacteria to produce isobutanol from glucose.

A New and Cost-Effective Technology to Produce Hybrid-Glass/Optical Bubble Probes

The ability to accurately quantify gas volumes in liquid flows has important applications in environmental science and industry. For example, environmental processes that significantly contribute to changes in earth’s climate, such as methane seeps from the sea floor and the exchange of gases between the ocean and atmosphere at the sea surface, demand precise sensors that are small and sensitive enough to measure the ratio of liquids and gases in these bubbly mixtures. These measurements also play a critical role in the operational efficiency of a wide variety of different engineering processes. Applications include, the monitoring the optimal amount of bubbled oxygen in the treatment of waste water and sewage, and the oil and gas industry, especially in undersea oil pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico alone, have spent billions of dollars annually on added refinement techniques to remove seawater that could be preventable if sensors were able to measure the ratio of crude oil, seawater and gas as the mixture is pumped through pipelines. These challenges exist in both research and industry because the current manufacturing process for making the needed gas/liquid probes have significant cost constraints. Clearly, there is a need for a new and cost-effective technology to produce these probes.

Hydrocarbon Production, H2 Evolution And CO2 Conversion By Whole Cells Or Engineered Azotobacter Vinelandii Strains

Using metal catalysts in industrial synthesis of hydrocarbons for fuels can be costly, inefficient, and harmful to the environment. This simple approach uses genetically-modified soil bacterium to synthesize valuable hydrocarbons using recycled components. This novel process is environmentally-friendly and is more cost- and energy-efficient than current industrial synthesis.

Renewable Energy Synthesis System

Researchers at the University of California, Davis have developed a novel system for acetoin and 2,3-butanediol synthesis from carbon dioxide.

Determining Oil Well Connectivity Using Nanoparticles

UCLA researchers in the Department of Chemistry have developed a method of using nanowires to detect underground fluid reservoir interconnectivities and reservoir contents with high accuracy.

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance System for Determining Oil and Water Compositions in Drilling Mud

Researchers at the University of California, Davis have developed a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) system and method for determining oil and water compositions in drilling mud.

Novel Enzymes Enabling Microbial Fermentation of Sugar into Long Chain Alcohols

Researchers at the University of California, Davis have developed a novel group of enzymes with the potential to facilitate production of energy dense alcohols for use in biofuel and chemical production.

Methods for Fabrication of Electric Propulsion Tips

The technology is a method for fabrication of silicon microfabricated emitter tips.This process has two-step etching process which utilizes field emission electric propulsion (FEEP) and indium propellant.

Low-Pressure High-Capacity Storage System for Sustainable Hydrogen Economy

Hydrogen-fueled cell vehicles could gain ground as global researchers develop better processes to produce hydrogen economically from sustainable resources like solar and wind. On an energy-to-weight basis, hydrogen has nearly three times the energy content of gasoline (120 megajoule or MJ, per kilogram or kg, for hydrogen, versus 44 MJ/kg for gasoline). One problem is storing enough hydrogen on-board to achieve a reasonable driving range of 300 to 400 miles. On energy-to-volume basis, hydrogen takes up nearly three times the volume of gasoline (8 MJ/liter for cryogenic liquid hydrogen versus 32 MJ/liter for gasoline). Another problem is related to next-generation solid absorbents like metal hydrides, which typically show weakness in terms of the amount of gas that can be absorbed and delivered. To address these problems, researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, have developed a composite material using nanostructured metal hydrides that is capable of storing three times more hydrogen per volume at room temperature than a comparable cryogenic liquid hydrogen tank. Furthermore, low hydrogen pressures during absorbing and desorbing have been achieved. This represents a significant economic and safety advantage over technologically complex and costly high-pressure (10,000 psi) hydrogen tanks commonly used in mobile hydrogen storage applications today.

Thermal Devices for Controlling Heat Transfer

The technology is a heat transfer device. The key properties are a unidirectional heat flow, thin, sandwich structure, and a T-dependent thermal resistance. The technology functions via the heat pipe effect. The purpose of the technology is to provide a one-way heat flow in a compact form (in a thin layer) with T-dependent thermal resistance.

Metal-Organic Frameworks For Aromatic Hydrocarbon Separations

Nearly all hydrocarbons are generated from petroleum or natural gas processing. Hydrocarbon mixtures are separated into component fractions at scale for the commercial production of fuels and chemical feedstocks. These large-scale systems use a lot of energy and require many sub-systems with expensive adsorbents or membrane materials like zeolites, polymers, metal oxides, and carbon. Since many of these hydrocarbon mixtures have molecules with similar structures, properties, and reactivities, many of the technical challenges and associated high costs remain. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) hold promise for efficient and complex separations based on their desirable surface areas, tunable pore geometries, and adjustable surface functionality. To help align MOFs with challenges in hydrocarbon separations, researchers at UC Berkeley have developed thermally robust and tunable MOF materials which are capable of separating mixtures of saturated, unsaturated, and aromatic hydrocarbons. The researchers have demonstrated the purification of a four component gas-phase mixture. 

Recirculating Noble Gas Internal Combustion Power Cycle

Conventional power conversion cycles which turn fuel into heat and heat into power are constrained by basic thermodynamic considerations. The most modern technologies have been limited to 60% even with multiple cycles combined (i.e. Brayton and Rankine combined cycle). Recent demonstrations have shown relative efficiency gains of 30% in both spark-ignited and compression-ignited regimes. Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, are working to outdo these efforts by working on an ultra-high efficiency power cycle framework using argon as the working fluid. Early laboratory results suggest the argon engine could easily achieve 70% or greater thermal efficiency. Under such research the argon replaces nitrogen as the working fluid and is recycled in the closed-loop system.

Next-Generation Metal-Organic Frameworks With High Deliverable Capacities For Gas Storage Applications

There are many applications that require the storage of a high density of gas molecules. The driving range of vehicles powered by natural gas or hydrogen, for instance, is determined by the maximum density of gas that can be stored inside a fuel tank and delivered to the engine or fuel cell. In certain situations, it is desirable to lower the pressure or raise the temperature needed to store a given amount of gas through the use of an adsorbent. Developments in next-generation adsorbents, such as metal-organic frameworks and activated carbons, have shown certain weaknesses in terms of the amount of gas that can be delivered when an application has a minimum desorption pressure greater than zero and when a significant amount of heat is released during adsorption or cooling occurs during desorption. To help solve these problems, researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, have developed a next generation of materials using novel porous metal-organic frameworks that demonstrate unprecedented deliverable gas capacities. These engineered adsorbents maximize the amount of gas delivered during each adsorption/desorption cycle. This shows promise in developing next generation gas storage materials for applications with a wide range of operating conditions.

Microstructured Cathode for Self-Regulated Oxygen Generation and Consumption

UCLA researchers have developed a cathode that generates oxygen, consumes the oxygen as needed, and stops the oxygen generation when it is not consumed, all in a self-regulated fashion.

Redox-Active Metal-Organic Frameworks for the Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrocarbons

The selective and efficient conversion of light alkanes into value-added chemicals remains a challenge for those in the petrochemical and chemical industries.  Currently, there is no go-to commercial process for the selective oxidative conversion of C1-C3 hydrocarbons into value-added chemical feedstocks, such as methanol and ethanol. Industrially, methanol is produced in an indirect and energy intensive process beginning with the steam reformation of natural gas into synthesis gas. After fermentation, ethanol is largely produced from the hydration of ethylene/ethene, which relies on the use of concentrated acids and elevates risk for human safety and environment. To overcome these challenges, researchers at UC Berkeley have devised novel materials and methods involving redox-active metals within porous metal-organic frameworks for driving improved catalytic oxidation of small hydrocarbons to their corresponding alcohols and aldehydes. This innovation could be of special importance to the boom of shale gas processing, which consists of largely methane, but also contains large amounts of ethane and other light alkane impurities.

Gas Separations With Redox-Active Metal-Organic Frameworks

With over 100 million tons produced annually, oxygen (O2) is among the most widely used commodity chemicals in the world -- and the demand for pure O2 could grow enormously due to its potential use in processes associated with the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel-burning plants.   The separation of O2 from air is currently done on a large scale using an energy-intensive cyrogenic distillation process. Zeolites are also used for O2 / N2 separation, however this process is inherently inefficient as the materials used adsorb N2 over O2 with poor selectivity.   To address this situation, researchers at UC Berkeley have developed novel redox-active metal-organic frameworks for gas separation. In comparison to conventional materials, the Berkeley material displays incredible separation properties at temperatures that are much more favorable to those currently used in numerous gas separaton and storage applications.   

Recycle Gas Cooled Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Rgc-Soft).

A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery that converts chemically bound energy directly into energy. There are various types of fuel cells and the solid oxide type fuel cell has the advantage of a high operating temperature which results in a high exhaust temperature. Researchers in UCI’s Advanced Power and Energy Program have utilized this high exhaust temperature to maximize the power efficiency and quality via recycling gas through the SOFC system.

Conceptual Design Of A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine Hybrid Power System For Motive Power In Freight Locomotives

The invention is the design of a power unit for freight-bearing locomotives using a Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell and a Gas Turbine engine and is intended to be used as the single power-providing unit onboard locomotives intended for freight service. The dual power sources form a single unit with synergistic energy efficiency and emissions reductions benefits. The unit is designed to operate on the currently-standard diesel fuel used in the locomotive industry.

Turbine Design Optimized for Wet Operation

Operation of axial or radial turbines under wet conditions is generally avoided because of three performance disadvantages: (1) droplets are unlikely to strike the turbine blades in a way that efficiently converts their momentum to rotor torque; (2) the liquid film that forms on the turbine blades alters the aerodynamics of the flow and makes it challenging to optimize the design for performance; and (3) droplet impingement in conventional turbines can cause the rotor blades to erode, and thereby shorten the life of the turbine. To address this problem, UC Berkeley researchers have developed a turbine design that is optimized for wet operation (i.e. operation with internal flow of liquid and vapor fluid phases). As the replacement for the expansion valve in vapor compression refrigeration and air-conditioning systems, this innovation can significantly enhance the energy efficiency of vapor compression systems by extracting additional power output and increasing the heat absorbing capacity of the refrigerant in the evaporator. Another version of the innovation can be used as the work output turbine in a Rankine cycle power generation system designed for wet turbine operation. This wet expansion cycle design has significantly higher heat input heat exchanger effectiveness, and higher energy efficiency than conventional Rankine cycles with superheat. 

Protein Stabilization In The Presence Of Organic Solvents

This UCB innovation has particular applications in biofuel production. It increases tolerance of microorganisms to toxic agents, such as solvents. Therefore, it is very valuable in increasing production of solvents from solvent-generating microorganisms. The method allows the engineering a microorganism of interest to express a heterologous heat-shock protein/chaperone, e.g., Group II chaperoning or a prefoldin such as γ-prefoldin, where the heterologous protein is from an extremophile, such as an archaean. While the research organism is E. coli, the methods can be applicable to other organisms, such as yeasts

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