UCSF investigators have identified gene signatures for both CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells that are associated with improved responses and survival with Anti-PD-L1 therapy in bladder cancer. The technology serves to benefit patient outcomes by determining the potential response to Anti-PD-L1 therapy prior to beginning treatment. Multiple genes and composite gene signatures were identified through single cell RNA sequencing of both CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. Further, the signatures were shown to be predictive of anti-PD-L1 treatment response in a separate data set comprised of 168 metastatic bladder cancer patients. This technology has the potential to improve upon previous gene expression profiles by providing more comprehensive characterization of the heterogenous T cell population within the tumor microenvironment.