UCLA researchers have developed an algorithm that enables construction of 3D images from tomographic data through iterative methods with the incorporation of mathematical constraints. This methodology is an improvement over conventional techniques as it allows for radiation dose reduction and improved resolution.
Tomographic imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are important diagnostic and interventional tools in medicine and other sciences. Typical tomography instrumentation contains a radiation source (i.e. X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, ions, or neutrons) and a detector that is rotated around an axis extending perpendicular from the plane in which the specimen is located.This apparatus enables a cross-sectional 2D or 3D image to be obtained of the internal structures of this object. A central problem in tomographic imaging is the danger of the radiation dose delivered to the patient or biological specimen. Furthermore, obtaining a high-quality image can be problematic because there are often incomplete sets of projection data as a result of mechanical limitations of the employed method. Thus, there is a need for a method that limits the exposure of the subject to potentially harmful radiation that is also accurate, reliable and computationally practical.
Researchers at UCLA have identified a novel algorithm for creating 3D cross sectional images of an object by the data reconstruction of projections obtained through a tomographic technique. This algorithm improves upon the accuracy of a method using iterative refinement by these same researchers. The use of mathematical constraints in this new algorithm effectively drives the reconstructions to a less noisy state consistent with experimental predictions and physical constraints. The algorithm can be used with any tomographic imaging system that reconstructs an object from its projections. The methodology allows for either higher quality images to be obtained with conventional radiation doses or for reduction of radiation dose without loss of image quality when compared to conventional methods.
The invention has been shown experimentally to yield higher resolution images than produced by conventional reconstruction methods. In addition, dose reductions of 40% or more have been shown to be achievable in X-Ray, CT, and TEM studies.
|United States Of America||Issued Patent||8,442,353||05/14/2013||2008-836|
biomedical, computer software, diagnostic, imaging, process/procedure, algorithm, data reconstruction, tomography