Mathematical Model and Apparatus to Optimize Functional Electrical Stimulation for Non-Isometric Limb Movement

Tech ID: 11246 / UC Case 2005-449-0


Researchers at the University of California, Davis have developed a mathematical model and apparatus capable of identifying optimal stimulation patterns to improve limb motion during functional electrical stimulation.

Full Description

Functional electrical stimulation (FES) uses electrical currents to induce contractions in muscles and is used in therapy to restore functional movement in extremities affected by paralysis. Mathematical muscle models could help optimize stimulation patterns used by commercially available FES systems but the current mathematical models are limited to isometric conditions and a narrow range of stimulation patterns.

A Researcher at the University of California, Davis, working in cooperation with Researchers at the University of Delaware, have developed a method and apparatus capable of identifying optimal stimulation patterns that can be used to produce non-isometric functional movements. This method identifies the interpulse intervals and pulse intensities that should be used during FES to allow for more precise limb motion control and reduce muscle fatigue, improving the overall effectivness and efficiency of FES.


  • Feedforward and feedback limb control systems
  • Functional electrical stimulation
  • Real-time, non-isometric skeletal-muscle movement modeling


  • Can be used in real time
  • Non-isometric movement modeling
  • Reduced muscle fatigue
  • More precise limb control
  • Optimized FES stimulation pattern

Related Materials

Patent Status

Country Type Number Dated Case
United States Of America Issued Patent 8,140,166 03/20/2012 2005-449


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  • Wexler, Anthony S.

Other Information


functional electrical stimulation, FES, mathematical movement model, non-isometric, movement, limb motion, paralysis, stimulation pattern

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