Neuropathic pain is a type of persistent pain usually occurring longer than 3 months, associated with peripheral nerve problems, but also can arise from chronic inflammatory diseases like arthritis, chemotherapeutic-induced peripheral neuropathy in the treatment of cancer or a neurodegenerative disease or condition. The chronic pain has an extraordinary negative impact on quality of life. While opiates, NSAIDs, and anticonvulsants can relieve pain for short intervals, they are less effective for chronic therapy, particularly when components of the pain state involve persistent inflammation and/or injury to the peripheral nerve. Aside from efficacy, many of the potent agents are beset with limiting side effects and issues related to dependence and addiction. This relative lack of long-term efficacy of even approved agents is evident from clinical trial results, which often indicate that most subjects complete even successful trials with pain that is sufficiently severe as to permit reentry into the same trial. What is needed is a new treatment modality.