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Developing Physics-Based High-Resolution Head And Neck Biomechanical Models

UCLA researchers in the Department of Radiation Oncology at the David Geffen School of Medicine have developed a new computational method to model head and neck movements during medical imaging/treatment procedures.

A Hundred Tiny Hands

100 Tiny Hands is an experiential learning program that imparts science, technology, engineering, and math (“STEM”) education to children ages six to twelve using storybook-inspired curriculum coupled with interactive educational “toolboxes.”

Monolithically Integrated Implantable Flexible Antenna for Electrocorticography and Related Biotelemetry Devices

A sub-skin-depth (nanoscale metallization) thin film antenna is shown that is monolithically integrated with an array of neural recording electrodes on a flexible polymer substrate. The structure is intended for long-term biometric data and power transfer such as electrocorticographic neural recording in a wireless brain-machine interface system. The system includes a microfabricated thin-film electrode array and a loop antenna patterned in the same microfabrication process, on the same or on separate conductor layers designed to be bonded to an ultra-low power ASIC.

Robust Visual-Inertial Sensor Fusion For Navigation, Localization, Mapping, And 3D Reconstruction

UCLA researchers in the Computer Science Department have invented a novel model for a visual-inertial system (VINS) for navigation, localization, mapping, and 3D reconstruction applications.

Dsp-Sift: Domain-Size Pooling For Image Descriptors For Image Matching And Other Applications

UCLA researchers in the Computer Science Department have invented a novel modification to the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm that shows significant improvement for computer vision applications.

Metal-free affinity media/agents for the selective capture of histidine-rich peptide sequences

The present invention utilizes metal-free synthetic polymer-based materials for the purification of peptides and proteins containing or being fused with histidine-rich sequences, which does not damage the function of the target protein and is less costly.

Load Modulation For Doherty Power Amplifier

Researchers at the University of California, Davis have derived a novel range of impedances that result in peak efficiency at power back-off operation conditions for the Doherty power amplifier.

Grouping Algorithm For Touchscreen Finger Position Detection

UCLA researchers in the Department of Electrical Engineering developed a new grouping algorithm for touchscreen finger position detection.

Energy Efficient Trigger Word Detection via Accelerometer Data

Researchers at the University of California, Davis have developed an energy-efficient voice monitoring technique for smart devices, such as smartphones and wearables, based on accelerometer data.

Direct Optical Visualization Of Graphene On Transparent Substrates

96 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} The ∼10% optical contrast of graphene on specialized substrates like oxide-capped silicon substrates, together with the high-throughput and noninvasive features of optical microscopy, have greatly facilitated the use and research of graphene research for the past decade.  However, substantially lower contrast is obtained on transparent substrates. Visualization of nanoscale defects in graphene, e.g., voids, cracks, wrinkles, and multilayers, formed during either growth or subsequent transfer and fabrication steps, represents yet another level of challenge for most device substrates.     UC Berkeley researchers have developed a facile, label-free optical microscopy method to directly visualize graphene on transparent inorganic and polymer substrates at 30−40% image contrast per graphene layer.  Their noninvasive approach overcomes typical challenges associated with transparent substrates, including insulating and rough surfaces, enables unambiguous identification of local graphene layer numbers and reveals nanoscale structures and defects with outstanding contrast and throughput. We thus demonstrate in situ monitoring of nanoscale defects in graphene, including the generation of nano-cracks under uniaxial strain, at up to 4× video rate.  

Finite-State Machines For DNA Information Storage

DNA can store petabytes of information per gram and can last intact for tens of thousands of years.  This makes it an appealing prospect for long-term archival storage.  However, DNA synthesis, sequencing, and replication are prone to errors, which limit its potential as a storage medium.  These errors can be controlled by applying the tools of information theory, treating DNA storage as a noisy channel coding problem.  Several coding schemes for DNA storage have been proposed that address the interrelated issues of error avoidance, error correction and redundancy.  There are currently no schemes that address all the above.    Researchers at UC Berkeley have combine some of these ideas, and introduced new ones, using a modular strategy for code design.  With this method, codes can be assembled to meet requirements including error-avoidance, error-correction (resistant to corruption of the information by substitutions, insertions, duplications, or deletions that are introduced during sequencing or replication of the DNA), and demarcation of metadata.  The DNA generated by the codes is free of short local repeats and other (foldback) structure.  The codes generated by this method are flexible in that they arise by systematic combination of state machines, each machine formally representing a particular transformation of the input sequence.  So, for example, one state machine might be used to introduce a "watermark" signal that helps protect against insertion/deletion errors; another state machine could be used to convert the binary sequence into a ternary sequence (or mixed-radix sequence); another state machine would convert the ternary or mixed-radix sequence into a non-repeating DNA sequence; and another state machine to model the errors that are introduced during sequencing. 

Fluid management device / fluid delivery system

Researchers at UC Irvine have developed a fluid delivery device. This delivery device simplifies the process of intravenous drug delivery to allow for an automated, efficient, and error free intravenous drug administration.

Realization Of Artificial Magnetic Skyrmions At Room Temperature

Researchers at University of California – Davis have developed a novel method to achieve artificial magnetic skyrmions at room temperature. The invention is suitable for exploration of magnetic skyrmions towards highly energy efficient magnetic information storage, such as high density magnetic recording, magnetic sensors, non-volatile magnetic memory and logic devices

Wearable Sensor Arrays for Detailed Sweat Profiles

Wearable technologies can play a significant role in realizing personalized medicine through continuously monitoring an individual’s physical and physiological states. Most currently developed wearable technologies are capable only in tracking the physical activities of an individual and fail to provide insight into the individual’s state of health. Human sweat contains the physiologically rich information needed to infer an individual’s sate of health and is an excellent candidate for non-invasive monitoring. The wearable sweat sensors can serve as an ideal platform for a wide range of real-time healthcare monitoring such as exercise-induced dehydration and medical diagnosis.

Adaptive optics with direct wavefront sensing for multi-photon microscope

Biological tissue are rarely transparent, presenting major challenges for deep tissue optical microscopy. With the advantages of high-resolution and viewing of live organisms, optical microscopy has become an important tool for biological research and continues to open new avenues in its capabilities. In recent years, image resolution and speed has been dramatically improved.  However the improvement of the resolution and penetration depth for optical microscopy is still in its infancy. As light passes through biological tissue, it can be absorbed, refracted and scattered, limiting the resolution and depth of optical imaging in biological tissues. Overcoming these challenges will benefit a wide range of applications from basic biological research to clinical investigations.

Efficient Encoding Of Genomic Data Using Deduplication

Today, storage of genome sequence data relies heavily on compression, using techniques such as Lempil ziv and gziv, which is commonly stored in the .BAM or .SAM file format. Current techniques use standard reference genomes, such as HG19, compiled from a variety of human genomes (For example: The results of many small reads are aligned and stored along with their quality data stores. The impact of whole genome sequencing, particularly in clinical treatment of cancer, will rapidly consume available storage. In 2010, 13M Americans had cancer. With existing technology, a single whole genome sequence for each person would be 39 exabyte’s (39,000 petabytes, 39 million terabytes or 39 billion gigabytes). There simply isn't a storage system that large; since storage capacity only grows at a rate of less than 20% per year. 

Novel Interactive System for Collective Insight Generation & Visualization

The volume of interactions in social media and crowd-sourcing tools continues to significantly grow.  As the amount of data being shared increases, showcasing relevant information has become a significant challenge.  Many social networking sites use linear lists for online discussions and crowd-sourcing feedback. Unfortunately, these systems do not scale well.  One major problem with linear lists is the amount of data presented to an end-user can become overwhelming. As an example, if a particular news story generates thousands of responses, then this data is impractical to navigate using a linear list, biases users to whatever data is presented at the top, and impedes consideration of the diversity of responses.  To address this situation, researchers at the University of California, Berkeley have developed a novel method to interactively visualize data for an online environment. This system can be applied to responses that are in textual, numeric and multimedia formats. By using canonical correlation analysis and other techniques, researchers have been able to highlight the most relevant information for end-users and in turn, facilitate browsing, and rating of responses, as well as displaying informative patterns.

Method for Exactly Transferring Graded Information in a Neuromorphic Circuit

A method whereby information encoded in spiking activity or current amplitude of a population of neurons may be transferred to a second population of neurons or simulated neurons.

A Robust Hybrid Control Algorithm for a Single-Phase DC/AC Inverter

Along with fossil and nuclear-based power, future energy distribution systems ought to be capable of interconnecting diverse renewable sources, such as hydroelectric generators, photovoltaic arrays, and wind turbines, as well as energy storage systems. The development of “Smart Grid” is needed due to increasing electricity demands and the need regulate input power sources. However, a particular challenge anticipated by a “Smart Grid” is the high variability of the power provided by the renewable sources, mainly due to their high dependence on environmental conditions. In turn this variability imposes a challenge to power conversion in particular, between DC and AC signals. Single-phase DC/AC inverter, using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) is one of the most common topologies used in power conversion. However, one of the main shortcomings of converters controlled by PWM-based algorithms is that they are not robust to changes in the input DC voltage, which limits their use in renewable energy applications.

Hidra: A Method For Hiding Mobility, Multiplexing, And Multi-Homing From Internet Applications

The Network environment is rapidly changing. The rise of mobile devices, many with multiple network interfaces, poses a fundamental challenge to traditional network protocols. Features such as mobility and multihoming, though easily understood, pose a significant challenge today, and have not yet been successfully implemented or deployed. The current state of the art is for applications to reconnect after a network handoff or disconnection. A socket application programming interface (API), allows application programs to control and use network socket (Definition: Sockets is a method for communication between a client program and a server program in a network. A socket is defined as "the endpoint in a connection." Sockets are created and used with a set of programming requests or "function calls" sometimes called the sockets API.) Today’s socket API requires an application to bind a socket to a transport-layer identifier (e.g., TCP80) and network layer identifier (e.g., an IP address). These early bindings create significant bottlenecks, reliability issues, and force applications to manage complex lower-layer issues. Many approaches have been proposed to address these problems; however, all of them introduce additional identifiers, modify applications, or require additional protocols in the protocol stack.

Detection of Genetic Relatives without Compromising Privacy

UCLA researchers in the Department of Computer Science have developed a novel method of identifying relatives from genetic data without compromising or revealing their genetic information to a third-party.

Large Area Thermoelectric Module Based on a Non-bulk Semiconductor

Conventional TE module are made of a combination of two types of semiconductors: n-type and p-type. The two types of bulky semiconductor pieces are arranged electrically in series to cover areas specific to different applications. Each semiconductor piece is relatively small because its size is limited by its manufacturing process, therefore a large number of semiconductor pieces are required to cover a large area; and furthermore, both n-type and p-type semiconductors are required because of the way they are assembled in a TE module, which makes it impossible to manufacture a TE module that is practically large and economically inexpensive. An advantage of such conventional TE module is that the open circuit voltage can be increased by connecting a large number of single TE unit in series, but the short circuit current is limited by the cross-section of each semiconductor piece. 

Rectifying Thermoelectric Devices

Roughly a third of the energy consumed by the U.S. manufacturing industry is discharged as thermal losses to the atmosphere or to cooling systems. Waste heat is estimated to be over 10 quads/yr (1 quad = 1015 Btu), an amount equivalent to more than 1.72 billion barrels of oil. If we could harness a small fraction of the waste heat while satisfying the economic demands of cost versus performance, then thermoelectric (TE) power generation could bring substantial positive impacts. Conventional Thermoelectric (TE) devices use a doped semiconductor material with two Ohmic contacts exhibit liner current-voltage (I-V) characteristics when voltage applied to the devices is swept from negative to positive (or vise versa). Electrical power generated by a TE device depends on the area bounded by open circuit voltage (Voc) and short circuit current (Isc) therefore the optimum load line to extract the maximum electrical power is simply determined by a point on the liner I-V.

Hybrid Porous Nanowires for Electrochemical Energy Storage

Supercapacitors are attractive energy storage devices due to their high-power capabilities and robust cycle lifetimes.   “Super” capacitors are named in part because the electrodes are composed of materials with high specific surface area and the distance between the electrode and electrochemical double layer is very small compared to standard capacitors.  A variety of porous silicon nanowires have been developed for use as supercapacitors electrodes by maximizing the specific surface area of active materials.  Although the use of Si is attractive due to its wide-spread adoption by microelectronics industry and due to its abundance, Si nanowires are highly reactive and dissolve rapidly when exposed to mild saline solutions.  Previously, silicon carbide thin films were used to protect the porous silicon nanowires, but the coatings were 10’s of nm thick and while they successfully mitigated Si degradation during electrochemical cycling in aqueous electrolytes, they also resulted in pore blockage and a large decrease in energy storage potential.   Researchers at UC Berkeley have developed methods and materials to improve porous silicon nanowires by overcoming the above limitations.  The resulting nanowires have an ultrathin carbon coating preserving the pore structure while mitigating Si degradation.  The resulting supercapacitor electrodes have the highest capacitance (and hence energy storage) per projected area to date.   

Wireless High-Density Micro-Electrocorticographic Device

A minimally invasive, wireless ECoG microsystem is provided for chronic and stable neural recording. Wireless powering and readout are combined with a dual rectification power management circuitry to simultaneously power to and transmit a continuous stream of data from an implant with a micro ECoG array and an external reader. Area and power reduction techniques in the baseband and wireless subsystem result in over 10x IC area reduction with a simultaneous 3x improvement in power efficiency, enabling a minimally invasive platform for 64-channel recording. The low power consumption of the IC, together with the antenna integration strategy, enables remote powering at 3x below established safety limits, while the small size and flexibility of the implant minimizes the foreign body response.

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