CRISPR-Cas systems include Cas proteins, which are involved in acquisition, targeting and cleavage of foreign DNA or RNA, and a guide RNA(s), which includes a segment that binds Cas proteins and a segment that binds to a target nucleic acid. For example, Class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems comprise a single Cas protein bound to a guide RNA, where the Cas protein binds to and cleaves a targeted nucleic acid. The programmable nature of these systems has facilitated their use as a versatile technology for use in modification of target nucleic acid. UC Berkeley researchers have discovered novel CRISPR-Cas proteins related to other CRISPR-Cas systems that utilize a single guide RNA (sgRNA) or a combination of a tracrRNA + guide RNA to perform RNA-directed cleavage of nucleic acids that can be applicable for DNA editing and diagnostics. The enzyme can cleave the target DNA and may be used for diagnostics by utilizing its ability to cleave single-stranded DNA in trans.