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Real-time Feature Inspection for Additive Manufacturing Systems

Additive Manufacturing (AM) is the process of making 3D objects from a computer model data by joining materials layer by layer under computer control using a 3D printer.   Poplar systems, even for home use, can be purchased that use various polymer plastics. In more robust application areas, metal alloys are required and their manufacturing is much more costly and time intensive. Metal parts created by additive manufacturing are often difficult to dimensionally characterize due to the complex surface structures created by welding phenomena present in state-of the art printing machines. The most holistic techniques involve measuring the surface of each sintered layer of powder, however, this is complicated to perform in a non-contact, non-destructive, and in-situ manner. Techniques such as Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography can be used to perform this task, but are limited to large pointwise measurement, limiting the speed and resolution of measuring the surface topography of each layer.  Due to the cost associated with additive manufacturing with alloys, reliable inspection methodologies are necessary to ensure that the part being fabricated is free of defects and meets all user specifications.

TRM: Dishevelled Segment Polarity Protein 3 (Dvl3) Mutant Mice

Dishevelled (Dvl) proteins are important signaling components of both the canonical β-catenin/Wnt pathway, which controls cell proliferation and patterning, migration, differentiation, stem cell renewal and the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. Mammals share three Dishevelled (Dvl) family members and while the roles of Dvl1 and Dvl2 have been described previously, the functions of Dvl3 have remained an area of active research. The lack of Dvl3 in mice affects the formation of the heart, neural tube, and inner ear and that the defects in these tissues are much more severe when the mice are deficient in more than one Dvl family member, indicating redundant functions for these genes. Congenital heart disease affects approximately 75 in every 1,000 live human births, and approximately 30% of these diseases are due to disruptions in the outflow tract, the region affected in mice lacking Dvl genes.

TRM:CRAMP Knockout Mice In The C57bl/6 Background

The mouse Camp gene is an ortholog of the human gene CAMP, which encodes the precursor of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37 (or CRAMP in mouse). Expressed mucosal epithelial cells, circulating neutrophils, and myeloid bone marrow cells, Camp is an essential part of the first line of defense against infection. In addition to antimicrobial activity, cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide plays a role in NK cell-mediated tumor growth suppression, and when secreted by neutrophils acts, as an attractant for monocytes, promoting wound healing or angiogenesis. Mouse CRAMP is implicated in adaptive immune response regulation and can interfere with TLR function via interactions with hyaluronan. Mice deficient in CRAMP are more susceptible to experimentally induced necrotic skin infection with Group A Streptococcus, urinary tract infection with uropathogenic E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, and meningococcal Neisseria meningitidis infection.

TRM: Two Mutant Mice Strains for the Study of Miller–Dieker syndrome (MDS)

Miller–Dieker syndrome (MDS), or 17p13.3 deletion syndrome results in human neuronal migration disorders characterized by type 1 lissencephaly sequence (ILS), severe mental retardation and reduced life expectancy. The understanding of these syndromes is often incomplete and is the subject of active research. Researchers have demonstrated that the gene encoding 14-3-3ε (YWHAE), one of a family of ubiquitous phosphoserine/threonine–binding proteins, is always deleted in individuals with MDS. Mice deficient in Ywhae have defects in brain development and neuronal migration, similar to defects observed in mice heterozygous with respect to Pafah1b1.  Gene specific transcriptional activation or repression is regulated by a complex network of transcription factors designated the Myc/Max/Mad network. MNT (max binding protein) binds DNA and a heterodimer with MAX and represses transcription and acts as an antagonist of Myc-dependent transcriptional activation and cell growth. Described below are two mice strains that may be useful in studies of Miller-Dieker Lissencephaly Syndrome generated by the same researcher.

Fast Deep Neural Network (DNN) Training/Execution on Hardware Platforms

With the growing range of applications for Deep Neural Networks (DNNs), the demand for higher accuracy has directly impacted the depth of the state-of-the-art models. Although deeper networks are shown to have higher accuracy, they suffer from drastically long training time and slow convergence speed with high computational complexity.

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Resistant Platform Strains for Bioproduction

The survival of bacteria is associated with the ability to respond to changing environmental conditions. For example, during situations of environmental pressure (e.g. UV, heat, or drug exposure) ROS levels can increase, leading to damage of DNA, lipids and an initiation of signaling events that can lead to cell death. Fortunately, bacterial possess enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase enzymes, as well as other antioxidant agents that can reduce ROS. However, when the balance between the production and elimination of ROS is upset, it can have unwanted effects. Thus, the ability of bacteria to increase their tolerance to ROS would be beneficial to the cell’s survival.

TRM: Slc7a2/CAT2 KO Mice

CAT2 is a membrane associated protein involved in the cellular uptake of cationic amino acids such as arginine, lysine and ornithine. CAT2 plays a regulatory role in the activation of macrophages. Arginine is a substrate for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) during the production of nitric oxide (NO). The release of NO by inflammatory cells contributes to the progression of diseases such as cancer, arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, and atherosclerosis. CAT2 plays a role in controlling inflammation and IL-17 activation in an injury model of colitis.

TRM: Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus-PyMT Transgenic Mice

Transgenic mouse models that develop spontaneous mammary adenocarcinomas have proven valuable in revealing molecular mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis and metastasis . Models target specific pathways depending on the transgene being expressed under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat (MMTV-LTR) or whey acid protein (WAP) mammary gland promoters and thereby replicate genetic defects in subsets of human tumors.