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Neutralization Of Oxidation Specific Epitopes To Promote Skeletal Bone Growth

Phospholipids are very abundant molecules in the cell, particularly in regard to the role they play in building blocks for membranes, lipoproteins and extracellular vesicles. They are also intimately involved in cellular signaling and other processes when they undergo oxidation to form various degradation products via a process called lipid peroxidation. These newly generated products are often highly reactive and can form neo-epitopes, designated oxidation-specific epitopes (OSEs). OSEs, including oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) and malondialdehyde (MDA)-modified amino groups and found on the surface of many cells and can be recognized by the immune system. MDA can be subject to degradation by reactive oxygen species, which can further react with acetaldehyde and endogenous proteins, forming malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) adducts. These MAA adducts are immunogenic and have pro-inflammatory properties. Furthermore, circulating levels of antibodies against MAA adducts have been shown to correlate with atherosclerotic disease and implicated in a number of other diseases.

Broadband Absorbers Via Hyperbolic Metamaterial Particles

Broadband absorbers are essential components of many light detection, energy harvesting and camouflage schemes. Materials that “perfectly” absorb light already exist, but they are bulky and can break when bent. They also cannot be controlled to absorb only a selected range of wavelengths, which is a disadvantage for certain applications. In addition, transferring planar materials to flexible, thin or low-cost substrates poses a significant challenge.

A Method for Induction of Corneal Endothelial Cells from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells (PSCs) via Ocular Lineage Specification

One of the most common causes of loss of vision is by corneal endothelial dystrophy (CED). Moreover, Fuchs CED is the leading cause of age-related blindness in individuals over the age of 40 in the United States affecting ~ 4% of the population. The current standard of care is to perform restorative corneal transplantation, but due to a shortage of healthy human donors, this is a challenge confronting the medical community. One solution would be to develop alternative sources of transplantation material. Human corneal endothelial cells (CESs) are not proliferative and do not regenerate in vivo. Therefore, there is a major interest in development of in vitro expandable cell sources for engineering corneal endothelium.

Hyperelastic Binder For Printed, Stretchable Electronics

Stretchable electronics are a new, emerging class of electronic devices that can conform to complex non-planar and deformable surfaces such as human organs, textiles, and robotics. Functional fillers incorporated with elastic polymers form composites for use in intrinsically stretchable electronics. These composites can be amenable to high-throughput, low-cost, additive printing technologies that include screen, inkjet, flexography, and 3D printing. However, the properties of the functional and elastic materials used to date have been mutually antagonistic, thus limiting achievement of state-of-the-art functional properties and high elasticity. The present invention relates to the development of random composite inks using triblock copolymer for stretchable electronics. The key novelty offered here is the ability to tolerate higher loadings of inelastic, functional materials without sacrificing the elastic properties of the ink.

A CMOS Compatible Fully-Integrated Switched-Domain Power Inverter Circuit

Modern mobile applications strive for the complete integration of all communication systems in CMOS. Unfortunately, it is conventionally difficult to efficiently generate high levels of RF power in scaled CMOS largely due to the inherently low voltage ratings of core transistors. To realize high output power with ~1V transistors, power combining techniques have been proposed whereby the output of several low-voltage power amplifier (PA) cells are combined via inductive transformers. However, power combining relies on ultra-thick metal that still carries large ohmic and substrate losses. These AC-AC losses, combined with the DC-AC losses of the PAs themselves, and the DC-DC losses of the battery-connected power converters, result in limited total transmitter efficiencies. Even modern digital PA techniques such as RF-DACs, digital Doherty, and digital out-phasing, which have been proposed to leverage the excellent switch performance of scaled transistors and offer reconfigurable operation, still require battery-connected DC-DC converters and RF transformers/power combiners, both of which result in cascaded losses.

Composition and Methods to Treat Osteoporosis

Most FDA-approved treatments for osteoporosis target osteoclastic bone resorption. Only parathyroid hormone (PTH) derivatives improve bone formation, but they have drawbacks, so new bone-anabolic agents are needed. The Nitric Oxide(NO)/cGMP/protein kinase G (PKG) signaling pathway mediates anabolic effects of estrogens and mechanical stimulation in bone cells by increasing osteoblast proliferation and osteocyte survival. Nitrates, which generate NO, reduce bone loss in estrogen-deficient rats and increase bone mineral density in post-menopausal women. However, nitrates are limited by induction of oxidative stress and development of tolerance, and may increase cardiovascular mortality after long-term use.

Compositions and Methods to Diagnose and Treat Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Using Metabolomics

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a serious and debilitating systemic disease characterized by diverse symptoms including pain, sleep disturbance, neurologic and cognitive changes, as well as impaired immune and autonomic responses. It affects approximately 1-2 million adults in the US, more often in women than men with peak onset of age 30-50. It is very difficult to reach a conclusive diagnosis due to the subjective nature, range of symptoms, and lack of understanding of the etiology and pathogenic mechanisms of CFS.

An Endogenous Anti-angiogenic Protein (EAP) and its Derivatives for Treatment of Cerebral Cavernous Malformations (CCM)

Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is a neurovascular disease that causes epilepsy and stroke for which there is no medical therapy. It has a prevalence of 5 per thousand in western populations and occurs in familial forms as a consequence of mutations in 3 CCM genes: CCM1/KRIT1, CCM2, CCM3/PCDC10 resulting in the formation of CCMs; mutations in the CCM1/KRIT1 gene account for 40% of the inherited cases. Once identified, CCM patients have a lifetime risk of CCM development and progression with increasing risk of stroke, epilepsy, or neurological impairment. 

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