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Fusion Proteins and Fusion Ribonucleic Acids for Tracking and Manipulating Cellular RNA

There are currently no consolidated systems that can both upregulate and downregulate the translation of specific messenger RNA (mRNA) targets. Known methods to achieve targeted downregulation include anti-sense oligonucleotides (ASO) and short interfering RNAs (siRNA). However, both of these technologies function to destabilize a messenger RNA target and downregulate translation, rather than upregulate translation. There are few known methods to increase mRNA translation and these methods are not well characterized. As such, there is a need to provide compositions and methods for recruiting translational pre-initation complexes in trans and thereby control translation in cells and in gene therapy techniques. Currently, there are no consolidated systems that can both upregulate and downregulate the translation of specific messenger RNA targets.

A Tumorigenic Index to Determine Live Cancer Initiation and Prognosis

The incidence and mortality of liver cancer, mainly hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), are increasing rapidly worldwide. Diverse risk factors for primary liver cancer have been identified, including infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), alcohol abuse and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) as well as intake of aflatoxin B1. Consistent with the complex and multifactorial etiologies, multi-omics analyses of human HCC and ICC samples have identified vast genomic heterogeneity, molecular and cellular defects, metabolic reprogramming, and subtypes of tumors as well as altered tumor microenvironment in the liver. However, it remains to be determined if any common molecular signatures in the transcriptomes exist for liver cancer, despite their considerable genomic heterogeneity. Furthermore, little is known about the kinetics and fashions, either gradual accumulation or dramatic transition, in generation of cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic signals that are intertwined to drive malignant transformation of hepatocytes and tumor initiation.

A Fully‐automated Deep Learning System (software code) for the Detection, Prognosis, and Visualization of Pulmonary Disease.

The majority of state‐of‐the‐art lung segmentation algorithms in the literature do not simultaneously segment lungs, lung lobes, and airway in a single algorithm. Additionally, automated algorithms typically perform the segmentation task on a series of 2D slices, which can reduce segmentation accuracy of anatomical structures (i.e. lung lobes) that may require contextual information across all three spatial dimensions. Many existing algorithms also have not been validated on chest CTs across a wide variety of conditions to evaluate algorithm generalizability. Currently, quantification of respiratory measurements requires a radiologist, trained analyst, or technician to recognize, identify, and manually annotate anatomical landmarks such as the lung lobes or airway in the chest. A fully‐automated deep learning system may eliminate the need for manual analysis, thereby improving efficiency and expanding applicability to a large number of CTs.

Software-Automated Medical Imaging Software for Standardizing the Diagnosis of Sarcopenia

Sarcopenia  is defined as an age associated decline in or loss of lean skeletal muscle mass. The pathophysiology can be multifactorial and the change in body composition may be difficult to detect due to obesity, changes in fat mass, or edema. Changes in weight, limb or waist circumference are not reliable indicators of muscle mass changes. Sarcopenia may also cause reduced strength, functional decline and increased risk of falling. Sarcopenia is otherwise asymptomatic and is often unrecognized.  

Novel Methods To Eliminate Dormant Hiv Reservoirs

Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus and the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related disorders. There were 1.7 million new infections globally in 2018, and ~38 million people are currently living with HIV-1. Although the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has prevented millions of AIDS-related deaths worldwide, patients must continue to receive ART for the remainder of their lives. HIV-1 reservoirs persist even while subjects are on ART, leading to a rapid increase in viral replication when therapy is discontinued. Therefore, eradication of persistent HIV-1 reservoirs remains the main barrier to achieving a cure for HIV-1/AIDS.  The prevailing view of persistence suggests that the virus remains in a latent state in memory CD4+ T cells regardless of plasma viral loads, allowing the virus to establish a life-long infection in the host. Since the latent virus is refractory to existing antiretroviral therapies, curative strategies are now focusing on agents that reactivate viral replication and render it susceptible to conventional therapy. Any strategy aimed at controlling and eradicating viral reservoirs in HIV-1-infected individuals must target such latent reservoirs. The mammalian genome encodes thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs, >200 nucleotides), including intergenic lncRNAs (lincRNAs), which are increasingly recognized to play major roles in gene regulation. The pathophysiological functions and mechanisms of lncRNAs in gene regulation have started to emerge. Work over the last few years has begun to uncover the role of lncRNAs in modulating HIV-1 gene expression.

TRM: HIF-1 alpha KO Mice (CRE)

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha is a transcriptional regulator of the adaptive response to hypoxia. When activated under hypoxic conditions, it can turn on over 40 genes involved in a variety of physiological activities. The dysregulation or alteration by mutation can lead to pathophysiology in areas of energy metabolism, cancer, cell survival and tumor invasion.

Method For Production Of Fatty Acids In Blue-Green Algae

Currently, renewable fatty acids are obtained solely from plant oils. Medium chain fatty acids (C8-C14) are typically sourced from coconut and palm oil, whereas longer chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids are typically sourced from tallow, soy, corn or sunflower oil. Fatty acids are widely used for food, personal care products, industrial applications (e.g., lubricants, adhesives, detergents and plastics), as well as increasingly as biofuels. The demand for renewable fatty acids is rising and expanding. Given the current understanding of biological pathways it becomes possible to utilize other organisms, especially microorganisms, for the production of renewable chemicals such as fatty acids.

TRM: Tbx18-CreERT2 Mice

The TBX18 (T-box 18) transcription factor is a key player in the formation of the sinoatrial node (SAN) formation during embryonic development.