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Device-Free Gesture Recognition System

The popularity of Internet of Things (IoT) devices (without tradition human-computer interfaces) has made gesture recognition an advantageous form of human-computer interaction - especially in smart home applications. However, conventional gesture recognition approaches have issues that limit their pervasive use. For example, wearable devices (e.g. watches and wristbands) with inertial sensors can be inconvenient to always wear; radio frequency systems are cost prohibitive for large-scale deployment; and vision-based systems require favorable lighting and introduce privacy concerns. Recently, WiFi infrastructure, and associated WiFi-enabled mobile and IoT devices have become ubiquitous, and correspondingly, have enabled many context-aware and location-based services. To address the opportunities for gesture recognition and take advantage of the popularity of WiFi, researchers at UC Berkeley developed a gesture recognition system based on analyzing signals from existing WiFi-enabled devices. This novel WiFi-enabled, device-free gesture recognition system can identify human gestures with consistent high accuracy and has robust environmental dynamics.

Device-Free Human Identification System

In our electronically connected society, human identification systems are critical to secure authentication, and also enabling for tailored services to individuals. Conventional human identification systems, such as biometric-based or vision-based approaches, require either the deployment of dedicated infrastructure, or the active cooperation of users to carry devices. Consequently, pervasive implementation of conventional human identification systems is expensive, inconvenient, or intrusive to privacy. Recently, WiFi infrastructure, and associated WiFi-enabled mobile and IoT devices have become ubiquitous, and correspondingly, have enabled many context-aware and location-based services. To address the challenges of human identification systems and take advantage of the popularity of WiFi, researchers at UC Berkeley developed a human identification system based on analyzing signals from existing WiFi-enabled devices. This novel device-free approach uses WiFi signal analysis to reveal the unique, fine-grained gait patterns of individuals as the "fingerprint" for human identification.

CRISPR-based Graphene Biosensor for Digital Detection of DNA Mutations

UC Berkeley and Keck Institute researchers have reported the development and testing of a graphene-based field-effect transistor that uses CRISPR technology to enable the digital detection of a target sequence within intact genomic material. Termed CRISPR–Chip, the biosensor uses the gene-targeting capacity of catalytically deactivated Cas9 complexed with a specific single-guide RNA and immobilized on the transistor to yield a label-free nucleic-acid-testing device whose output signal can be measured with a simple handheld reader.  

CRISPR-CAS EFFECTOR POLYPEPTIDES AND METHODS OF USE THEREOF (Cas14 Type)

The CRISPR-Cas system is now understood to confer bacteria and archaea with acquired immunity against phage and viruses. CRISPR-Cas systems consist of Cas proteins, which are involved in acquisition, targeting and cleavage of foreign DNA or RNA, and a CRISPR array, which includes direct repeats flanking short spacer sequences that guide Cas proteins to their targets.  Class 2 CRISPR-Cas are streamlined versions in which a single Cas protein bound to RNA is responsible for binding to and cleavage of a targeted sequence. The programmable nature of these minimal systems has facilitated their use as a versatile technology that is revolutionizing the field of genome manipulation.  Current CRISPR Cas technologies are based on systems from cultured bacteria, leaving untapped the vast majority of organisms that have not been isolated.  There is a need in the art for additional Class 2 CRISPR/Cas systems (e.g., Cas protein plus guide RNA combinations).     UC Berkeley researchers discovered a new type of Cas 14 protein.  Site-specific binding and/or cleavage of a target nucleic acid (e.g., genomic DNA, ds DNA, RNA, etc.) can occur at locations (e.g., target sequence of a target locus) determined by base-pairing complementarity between the Cas14 guide RNA (the guide sequence of the Cas14 guide RNA) and the target nucleic acid.  Similar to CRISPR Cas9, Cas14 enzymes are expected to have a wide variety of applications in genome editing and nucleic acid manipulation.    

CRISPR-CAS EFFECTOR POLYPEPTIDES AND METHODS OF USE THEREOF

The CRISPR-Cas system is now understood to confer bacteria and archaea with acquired immunity against phage and viruses. CRISPR-Cas systems consist of Cas proteins, which are involved in acquisition, targeting and cleavage of foreign DNA or RNA, and a CRISPR array, which includes direct repeats flanking short spacer sequences that guide Cas proteins to their targets.  Class 2 CRISPR-Cas are streamlined versions in which a single Cas protein bound to RNA is responsible for binding to and cleavage of a targeted sequence. The programmable nature of these minimal systems has facilitated their use as a versatile technology that is revolutionizing the field of genome manipulation.  Current CRISPR Cas technologies are based on systems from cultured bacteria, leaving untapped the vast majority of organisms that have not been isolated.  There is a need in the art for additional Class 2 CRISPR/Cas systems (e.g., Cas protein plus guide RNA combinations).     UC Berkeley researchers discovered a new type of Cas 12 protein.  Site-specific binding and/or cleavage of a target nucleic acid (e.g., genomic DNA, ds DNA, RNA, etc.) can occur at locations (e.g., target sequence of a target locus) determined by base-pairing complementarity between the Cas12 guide RNA (the guide sequence of the Cas12 guide RNA) and the target nucleic acid.  Similar to CRISPR Cas9, Cas12 enzymes are expected to have a wide variety of applications in genome editing and nucleic acid manipulation.    

High Electromechanical Coupling Disk Resonators

Capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators routinely post Q several times higher than piezoelectric counterparts, making them the preferred platform for HF and low-VHF (e.g. 60-MHz) timing oscillators, as well as very narrowband (e.g. channel-select) low-loss filters. However, the small electromechanical coupling (as gauged by the resonator's motion-to-static capacitance ratio, Cx/Co) of these resonators at higher frequency prevents sub-mW GSM reference oscillators and complicates the realization of wider bandwidth filters. To address this situation, researchers at UC Berkeley developed a capacitive-gap transduced radial mode disk resonator with reduced mass and stiffness. This novel Berkeley disk resonator has a measured electromechanical coupling strength (Cx/Co) of 0.56% at 123 MHz without electrode-to-resonator gap scaling. This is an electromechanical coupling strength improvement of more than 5x compared with a conventional radial contour-mode disk at the same frequency. This increase should help improve the passbands of channel-select filters targeted for low power wireless transceivers and lower the power of MEMS-based oscillators.  

Nanoneedle Plasmonic Photodetectors And Solar Cells

The invention is about an extremely efficient photodiode and solar cell using a novel nanoneedle structure to create a large internal field for electron-hole amplification and collection, and a plasmonic antenna for optical field enhancement.  Both of which work together to result in an extremely high efficiency. Investigators at UCB have demonstrated one version of this detector in the format of an avalanche photodetector (APD) based upon a crystalline GaAs nanostructure in the shape of a very sharp nanoneedle (NN) and incorporating a core-shell p-n junction for light detection. The tapered NN shape, high NN aspect ratio, and small NN dimension together allow a low bias voltage to produce a high electric field sufficient for current multiplication for high sensitivity. NN APDs also have an extremely high operation speed due to the reduced capacitance comimg from the small NN dimensions. The catalyst-free, low-temperature growth mode of the GaAs NNs also enables the integration to the as-fabricated Si CMOS devices as well as other crystalline or amorphous substrates.