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Utilization Of Recombinant Glucosyltransferases For Value-Added Chemicals

96 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Glycoyltransferases are a large class of enzymes that act to catalyze the ligation of sugar onto an acceptor molecule – a process termed glycosylation. Within plants, a majority of these enzymes are involved in adding sugar groups to small molecules, forming “glycosides”. Such a modification can heavily impact the bioactivity, solubility, and physical properties of a molecule. Previous researchers have shown direct microbial bioconversion of aromatic/aliphatic flavor and fragrant molecules into their glucosides via glycosyltransferase activity via either feeding/bioconversion or direct production from glucose. However, very little emphasis has been placed on industrial yeast-­based production of specialist fragrances/flavorings or medicinal drugs.   Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley have developed a novel technology for producing plant pigment glucosides (such as highly decorated anthocyanins, coumarin glucosides, or betanins) in S. cerevisiae for industrial fermentation. Production of such colorimetric glycoside agents has value for various industries including solar-­cell, diagnostic reagent, and food-­dye manufacturers.  The technology can be used to improve the titers of commodity chemicals or the properties of various specialty or medicinal compounds. The technology also addresses one possible solution to combating the contamination of industrial fermenters through providing a method of enabling the utilization of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents without harming the production host and as one facet of improving microbial tolerance to lignocellulose hydrolysate phenolics.  

Modulation Of Lymphatic Valve And Vessel Formation To Treat Diseases, Such As Trasplant Rejection

96 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Lymphatic Valve formation is associated with lymphangiogenesis, a pathological event that occurs in many diseases after inflammatory, infections, immunogenic or traumatic insults. These valves play critical roles in directing lymph flow inside the lymphatic vessels. The Lymphatic pathway is a primary mediator of immune responses, including transplant rejection. The current regimen of pharmacotherapy with corticosteroids is of limited efficacy and is fraught with serious side effects.   Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley have identified Itga-9 is critically involved in lymphatic valve formation after pathological insults, and itga-9 blockade can reduce the number of lymphatic valves formed inside the pathological lymphatic vessels. Moreover, Itga-9 interference can be used to modulate immune responses and transplant rejection. Additionally, ITga-9 can be used to improve the therapeutic effects of other anti-lymphangiogenic molecules, such as VEGFR-3. When used in combination, the formulation of both valves and lymphatic vessels are greatly suppressed and better therapeutic outcomes can be achieved for severe diseases, such as high-risk transplant rejection.  

Sub-Micron Pixelated Filter-Free Color Detector

Conventional cameras achieve color imaging by patterning organic dye color filters on top of photo detectors. However, due to the low absorption coefficients, organic dye filters cannot be made thinner than a few hundred nanometers, forbidding the realization of very small pixels. In addition, they are not durable under ultraviolet illumination or high temperature. Alternatively, optically thick plasmonic color filters have been realized, which can achieve pixel size down to a few microns. They are also superior to organic dyes regarding stability and design flexibility. However, the plasmonics color filters are still based on the conventional filtering scheme, which is intrinsically ineffective. Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley have developed a mechanism to achieve sub-micron pixel detection with very high photon efficiency. This novel mechanism is based on 3D semiconductor particles, which are more sturdy and easier to fabricate comparing to aforementioned techniques. At sub-micron pixel size, these resonant nano-structures outperform conventional color filters, which are limited by detrimental crosstalk between neighboring pixels.

Two-Dimensional Patterning Of Integrated Circuit Layer By Tilted Ion Implantation

The proliferation of information technology (IT) – which has had dramatic economic and social impact – has been enabled by the steady advancement of integrated circuit (IC) technology following Moore’s Law, which states that the number of transistors on an IC “chip” doubles every two years. In other words, the primary reason for increasing the number of components (transistors) on a chip is to lower the manufacturing cost per component. Increased integration also has the benefits of providing for improved system performance and energy efficiency. Therefore, the semiconductor industry has steadily scaled linear transistor dimensions, by a factor of approximately 0.7´ with every new generation of manufacturing technology, over the past 50 years. The most advanced chips today comprise over 10 billion transistors within an area of a few cm2. The pace of IC technology advancement has slowed down for the most recent generations, however, due to fundamental limits of the conventional photolithographic patterning process. Double-patterning techniques such as “self-aligned double patterning (SADP)” are used today to pattern IC layers with sub-45 nm feature size and minimum pitch, well below the wavelength of light used in the photolithography process. These techniques involve many additional steps, including extra lithography and etching processes, however, which result in increased cost of patterning.  To address the issue of increasing patterning cost, researchers at the University of California, Berkeley have developed a new method for patterning an IC layer with minimum feature pitch smaller than the minimum pitch of the photolithographic process and with minimum feature size smaller than the lithographic resolution limit, using well-established planar processing techniques.  A significant advantage of this new method is that it can be used to define two-dimensional layout patterns, which can provide for more compact integrated circuits.

Passthought Authentication With In-Ear EEG

It is well appreciated by experts and end-users alike that strong authentication is critical to cybersecurity and privacy, now and into the future. The currently dominant method of authentication in consumer applications, single-factor authentication using passwords or other user-chosen secrets, faces many challenges. Major industry players such as Google and Facebook have strongly encouraged their users to adopt two-factor authentication (2FA). However, submitting two different authenticators in two separate steps has frustrated wide adoption due to its additional hassle to users. In previous work, ”one-step two-factor authentication” has been proposed as a new approach to authentication that can provide the security benefits of two factor authentication without incurring the hassle of two-step verification. Researchers at UC Berkeley have created a one step, three-factor authentication. In computer security, authenticators are classified into three types: knowledge factors (e.g., passwords and PINs), possession factors (e.g., physical tokens, ATM cards), and inherence factors (e.g., fingerprints and other biometrics). By taking advantage of a physical token in the form of personalized earpieces, the uniqueness of an individual’s brainwaves, and a choice of mental task to use as one’s passthoughts, they have achieved all three factors of authentication in a single step by the user.  

Elves--an Expert System For X-ray Crystallography Of Biological Macromolecules

Elves is a computer expert system for X-ray crystallography of biological macromolecules. Elves automates and accelerates every step of X-ray data analysis, from processing X-ray diffraction images to guiding and refining a molecular model. Elves requires the use of CCP4, which must be obtained under separate license from a third party. Elves also uses common data analysis programs such as Mosflm. Elves also has novel functionalities, such as Spotter to identify and display particular diffraction spots, sendhome to transmit data frames over the internet, and table1.com to tabulate statistics for publication. Elves sequentially runs each step of X-ray structure determination using a generalized regimen. The problem-solving strategy is based on empirical rules and procedures for overcoming common problems. Optimized parameters are passed from each program to the next. These values can be evaluated by the user or simply accepted automatically at each stage. The overall effect is to systematize, optimize and accelerate the process of X-ray structure analysis in biomedical research. Elves can accept English language inputs or shell script inputs. After locating the data and the necessary programs on the file system, Elves writes program-input scripts, runs programs, examines the output and iteratively repeats this cycle to optimize input parameters. This optimization is generally beyond the capability of human users of the underlying programs. This systematic X-ray data analysis reduces the frequency of mistakes. In addition, Elves operates faster and more reliably than a human user, even when the user employs a graphical interface. Complicated analytical calculations that can take months for human users to complete can be performed in a matter of hours using Elves. To date, Elves has been used to help determine the crystal structure of over fourteen proteins. Novel structures have been solved in as little as five hours from the start of X-ray data collection at a synchrotron source; a typical investigator not using Elves would take weeks to months to complete the same work.

THERMOSTABLE RNA-GUIDED ENDONUCLEASES AND METHODS OF USE THEREOF (GeoCas9)

96 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} The CRISPR-Cas system is now understood to confer bacteria and archaea with acquired immunity against phage and viruses. CRISPR-Cas systems consist of Cas proteins, which are involved in acquisition, targeting and cleavage of foreign DNA or RNA, and a CRISPR array, which includes direct repeats flanking short spacer sequences that guide Cas proteins to their targets. The programmable nature of these systems has facilitated their use as a versatile technology that is revolutionizing the field of genome manipulation. There is a need in the art for additional CRISPR-Cas systems with improved cleavage and manipulation under a variety of conditions and ones that are particularly thermostable under those conditions.     UC researchers discovered a new type of RNA-guided endonuclease (GeoCas9) and variants of GeoCas9.  GeoCas9 was found to be stable and enzymatically active in a temperature range of from 15°C to 75°C and has extended lifetime in human plasma.  With evidence that GeoCas9 maintains cleavage activity at mesophilic temperatures, the ability of GeoCas9 to edit mammalian genomes was then assessed.  The researchers found that when comparing the editing efficiency for both GeoCas9 and SpyCas9, similar editing efficiencies by both proteins were observed, demonstrating that GeoCas9 is an effective alternative to SpyCas9 for genome editing in mammalian cells.  Similar to CRISPR-Cas9, GeoCas9 enzymes are expected to have a wide variety of applications in genome editing and nucleic acid manipulation.