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Au(III) Complexes For [18F] Trifluoromethylation

96 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} The biological properties of trifluoromethyl compounds (e.g, CF3) have led to their ubiquity in pharmaceuticals, yet their chemical properties have made their preparation a substantial challenge, necessitating innovative chemical solutions.  For example, strong, non-interacting C-F bonds lend metabolic stability while simultaneously limiting the ability of chemical transformations to forge the relevant linkages and install the CF3 unit.  When these same synthetic considerations are extended toward the synthesis of trifluoromethylated positron emission tomography (PET) tracers, the situation becomes more complex.   UC Berkeley researchers discovered an unusual alternative mechanism, in which borane abstracts fluoride from the CF3 group in a gold complex. The activated CF2 fragment can then bond to a wide variety of other carbon substituents added to the same gold center. Return of the fluoride liberates a trifluoromethylated compound from the metal. This mechanism would be useful for the introduction of radioactive fluoride substituents for potential tracers to be used for positron emission tomography applications.

Methods and Compositions for Selective Testing of Mammalian Proteomics From Mixed Biological Environments

96 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Studies of heterochronic parabiosis (surgical joining of young and old animals) suggest both productive tissue repair and the key signal transduction pathways that control stem cell activation are restored to ‘youth’ in the old parabionts by young systemic factors.  It would be beneficial from academic and clinical stand-points to determine which proteins in tissues of parabiotically connected animals are derived from the circulation of young versus old partner. Such a database of systemic proteins that end up in specific tissues would suggest potentially rejuvenating (young blood) and inhibitory (old blood) molecules with direct effects in a given tissue. While biochemical fractionation of serum and plasma can provide some characterization of the molecular differences between young and old circulatory milieu, this technique is fraught with the risk of missing proteins that act in complexes with each other and other macromolecules. UC Berkeley researchers have discovered methods and compositions that overcome these problems by relying on tRNA synthase that specifically recognizes and incorporates Bio-Orthogonal Non-Canonical Amino acid Tagging (“BONCAT”) into proteins. To facilitate detection by proteomics, we have selected the BONCAT method over the cell type-specific labeling with amino acid precursors where proteomes are tagged with heavy isotope—labeled precursors; and over the incorporation of Met analogs azidohomoalanine and homopropargylglycine, which do not allow one to selectively profile young versus old proteomes in settings of parabiosis. The researchers have also developed a novel transgenic mouse strain which demonstrate the survival and vigor of these animals as well as the effective proteome labeling of cells in vitro and all examined tissues in vivo.

Gene Delivery Into Mature Plants Using Carbon Nanotubes

96 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Current methods of biomolecule delivery to mature plants are limited due to the presence of plant cell wall, and are additionally hampered by low transfection efficiency, high toxicity of the transfection material, and host range limitation. For this reason, transfection is often limited to protoplast cultures where the cell wall is removed, and not to the mature whole plant.  Unfortunately, protoplasts are not able to regenerate into fertile plants, causing these methods to have low practical applicability. Researchers at the University of California have developed a method for delivery of genetic materials into mature plant cells within a fully-developed mature plant leaf, that is species-independent. This method utilizes a nano-sized delivery vehicle for targeted and passive transport of biomolecules into mature plants of any plant species. The delivery method is inexpensive, easy, and robust, and can transfer biomolecules into all phenotypes of any plant species with high efficiency and low toxicity.

Xanthene-Based Dyes For Voltage Imaging

Rapid changes in the membrane potential of excitable cells (e.g., neurons and cardiomyocytes) play a central role in defining the cellular signaling and physiological profiles of these specialized cells. Typically, the membrane potential is monitored and measured via patch clamp electrophysiology, which involves the use of a micro-electrode attached to or near the cell of interests.  Unfortunately, the use of an electrode is highly invasive, limits records to the soma of a single cell and is extremely low throughput. Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley have designed and synthesized a voltage sensitive indicator that can provide excitation and emission profiles greater than 700 nm, and as such, represents an important method for visualizing membrane potential in living cells.

Scalable Super-Resolution Synthesis Of Core-Vest Composites Assisted By Surface Plasmons

Concurrent control of size, shape, and composition of nanoparticles is key to tuning their functionality with widespread applications in sensing, catalysis, cancer cell ablation, water-splitting, spectroscopy, dye-sensitized solar cells, and more. UCB inventors demonstrate unprecedented precision over the structure and composition of complex nanoparticles by fusing colloidal chemistry with plasmon assisted synthesis.  They show that combining properties of light used for plasmon excitation (wavelength, intensity, and pulse-duration) with the physical properties of nanoparticles (size, shape, and composition) leads to hitherto unrealized core-vest composite nanostructures. Tunable variations in localized temperature distributions >50 degrees C are achieved over nanoparticles as small as 50-100 nm. These temperature variations result in core-vest formations with selective shell coverage that mirrors the local inhomogeneities of the heat distribution. This new class of core-vest nanoparticles (CVNs) allows plasmonic enhancement of nanocomposite functionalities that are inaccessible in typical core-shell geometries.  

Novel, Programmable Nucleic Acid Binding And Cleaving CRISPR Proteins Which Can Sense And Respond To The Cellular Environment

96 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;} RNA-programmed Cas9 has proven to be a versatile tool for genome engineering in multiple cell types and organisms. Guided by a dual-RNA complex or a chimeric single-guide RNA, Cas9 (or variants of Cas9) can generate site-specific double-stranded or single-stranded breaks within target nucleic acids. Target nucleic acids can include double-stranded DNA and single-stranded DNA as well as RNA. When cleavage of a DNA occurs within a cell (e.g., genomic DNA in a eukaryotic cell), the cell can repair the break in the target DNA by non-homologous end joining or homology directed repair. Thus, CRISPR/Cas systems provide a facile means of modifying genomic information. Because the effectiveness of many Cas9 protein fusions is less than optimal (likely due to steric incompatibility), there is a need for variants of RNA-guide polypeptides (e.g., variant Cas9 proteins) that provide for, for example, conditionally active proteins and/or more efficient fusion proteins.   UC Berkeley researchers have created circularly permutated Cas9 proteins (cpCas9 proteins) with entirely new N- and C- termini at defined sites around the Cas9 protein structure.  The cpCas9 proteins were found to increase the effectiveness of Cas9 fusion proteins because they reduce the constraints imposed by the naturally existing N- and C-termini. The researchers have shown their RNA-guided polypeptides provide increased target nucleic acid editing accuracy (increased in some cases with single nucleotide resolution). Multiple different cpCas9 proteins were developed, each of which provides new N- and C- termini at unique positions within the structure of the Cas9 protein. Thus, depending on the fusion partner of choice, an appropriate cpCas9 can be selected that will place the fused partner at a desired position. This ability to position a fusion partner relative to the structure of the protein while allowing fusion to an N- and/or C-terminus, provides RNA-guided polypeptides that are better suited to avoid off-target effects.  

Compact Voltage Sensor For Power-Lines

Power-lines for the distribution and transmission of high-voltage electricity are ubiquitous infrastructure of modern societies. Convenient means exists for measuring the currents in these power-lines. However measuring the voltages between conductors of power-lines is difficult and costly because it typically requires large and expensive equipment due to the high voltages (which can be tens or hundreds of thousands of volts). To address that situation, researchers at UC Berkeley have developed a novel, practical and inexpensive way to measure the conduct-to-conductor voltages of power-lines using components in just one conductor of overhead distribution and transmission power-lines. In addition to voltage, this technology can be augmented to measure current, power, and power flow directions. This Berkeley technology can also applied to power-lines in office buildings, factories and power substations.

Class 2 CRISPR/Cas COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS OF USE

96 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} The CRISPR-Cas system is now understood to confer bacteria and archaea with acquired immunity against phage and viruses. CRISPR-Cas systems consist of Cas proteins, which are involved in acquisition, targeting and cleavage of foreign DNA or RNA, and a CRISPR array, which includes direct repeats flanking short spacer sequences that guide Cas proteins to their targets.  Class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems are streamlined versions in which a single Cas protein bound to RNA is responsible for binding to and cleavage of a targeted sequence. The programmable nature of these minimal systems has facilitated their use as a versatile technology that is revolutionizing the field of genome manipulation, so there is a need in the art for additional Class 2 CRISPR/Cas systems (e.g., Cas protein plus guide RNA combinations).   Researchers have shown that Class 2 CRISPR Cas protein and their variants can be used in a complex for specific binding and cleavage of DNA. The Class 2 CRISPR Cas complex utilizes a novel RNA and a guide RNA to perform double stranded cleavage of DNA and the complex is expected to have a wide variety of applications in genome editing and nucleic acid manipulation.