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Self-Cleaning Mass Sensor For Particulate Matter Monitoring

Airborne particulates (such as vehicle exhaust, dust, and metallics) are a health hazard.  Monitors for measuring particulate matter (PM) concentrations in air are typically designed for stationary industrial use; and while they are quite sensitive, they are also bulky, heavy, and expensive.  Accordingly, there is a need for PM concentration monitors that are inexpensive and portable so that they can be more pervasive, and also used by mass-market consumers. Recently, various types of portable PM monitors have been developed.  One class of monitor uses optical technology to measure particulates flowing through (not deposited on) the device.  This optical technology is not sensitive to extremely small particles (with diameters of 200 nanometers or less), yet these small particles are a serious health hazard.  Another class of PM monitor uses various technologies to measure the mass of particles deposited on (not flowing through) the device.  This type of monitor can be quite sensitive, but eventually, it can become overloaded with deposited particles.  Moreover, multiple layers of particles can eliminate the possibility of determining the chemical nature of the particles. To address these shortcomings, researchers at UC Berkeley have developed a means of periodically cleaning deposited particles from mass-sensing components of deposit-based PM sensors.  The Berkeley technology results in PM sensors that are not only portable and low-cost, but also have long-lasting functionality.

Enzymatic Synthesis Of Cyclic Dinucleotides

96 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} GGDEF domain-containing enzymes are diguanylate cyclases that produce cyclic di-GMP (cdiG), a second messenger that modulates the key bacterial lifestyle transition from a motile to sessile biofilm-forming state. The ubiquity of genes encoding GGDEF proteins in bacterial genomes has established the dominance of cdiG signaling in bacteria. A subfamily of GGDEF enzymes synthesizes the asymmetric signaling molecule cyclic AMP-GMP. Hybrid CDN-producing and promiscuous substrate-binding (Hypr) GGDEF enzymes are widely distributed and found in other deltaproteobacteria and have roles that include regulation of cAG signaling.  GGDEF enzymes that produce cyclic dinucleotides are especially of interest.    UC Berkeley researcher have developed a new method of preparing and using cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) by contacting a CDN producing-enzyme (e.g., a GGDEF enzyme) with a precursor of a CDN under conditions sufficient to convert the precursor into a CDN. This method produces a variety of non-naturally occurring, asymmetric and symmetric CDNs and can be performed in vitro or in a genetically modified host cell. Also provided are CDN compositions that find use in a variety of applications such as modulating an immune response in an individual.  

Sensitive Detection Of Chemical Species Using A Bacterial Display Sandwich Assay

96 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Endocrine disrupting compounds are found in increasing amounts in our environment, originating from pesticides, plasticizers, and pharmaceuticals, among other sources. These compounds have been implicated in diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cancer. The list of chemicals that disrupt normal hormone function is growing at an alarming rate, making it crucially important to find sources of contamination and identify new compounds that display this ability. However, there is currently no broad-spectrum, rapid test for these compounds, as they are difficult to monitor because of their high potency and chemical dissimilarity.   To address this, UC Berkeley researchers have developed a new detection system and method for the sensitive detection of trace compounds using electrochemical methods.  This platform is both fast and portable, and it requires no specialized skills to perform. This system enables both the detection of many detrimental compounds and signal amplification from impedance measurements due to the binding of bacteria to a modified electrode. The researchers were able to test the system finding sub-ppb levels of estradiol and ppm levels of bisphenol A in complex solutions. This approach should be broadly applicable to the detection of chemically diverse classes of compounds that bind to a single receptor.  

Sparse 3D Holographic Spatio-Temporal Focusing

96 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Several techniques are available to trigger neural activity in brain tissue on demand which are needed to study how the brain exchanges and processes information, which is useful in research and treatment applications.  The most promising solutions are all optical. Brain cells are modified with bio-compatible engineered proteins making ion-specific channels located at the neurons' cell membrane photosensitive. At this point, external triggering of action-potentials with light becomes possible.  What is needed are instruments and methods that provide specificity, improve spatial and temporal resolution, are non-invasive and bio-compatible, provide high speed and low delay, have large operating volumes.   UC Berkeley researchers have developed a new system and methods that meet the above qualities.  This new technology enables all-optical activation of individual neurons in live brain tissue and can narrowly concentrate light on individual neurons anywhere within a large 3D volume. The invention enables precise triggering of action-potentials with single neuron spatial resolution in the entire volume of interest, offering a significant improvement over existing technology.  The technology can be used as an add-on system in the optical path in a commercial microscope.  

Single Crystal Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Grown In “Jelly”

Growing single crystal material has long been a challenging problem and generally requires strict condition control.  The state-of-art methods to grow single crystal layers are performed at high temperature with high pressure or other extreme conditions. Growth of single crystal semiconductor is even more complicated and difficult. Developing a forgiving and tolerant method for single crystal growth brings great technical promise in the semiconductor industry. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) have become the most popular 2D materials that show direct bandgap when scaled down to single layer. Great effort has been put into developing synthesis techniques of large scale uniform single crystalline TMDC, including chemical vapor deposition, annealing from solution, and ALD, all of which are expensive and require high temperature. MoS2 as a TMDC family member has been widely studied for its unique properties of valley polarization, selective photoluminescence and high carrier mobility in broad range applications of valleytroncis, photonics and electronic devices. Developing methods to grow single crystal layer MoS2 will greatly reform the device fabrication process and promote its application in the semiconductor industry. Researchers at UC Berkeley have developed a strategy to grow single crystal semiconductor in a CVD coupled self-assembly process, especially for 2d materials with the assistance of self-assembly. They further develop the recipe to grown monolayer and few layer MoS2, with same mechanism but diluted solution and the assistance of surfactant. They have further patterned a thin film transistor on few layers of MoS2.

Monolithically Integrated Implantable Flexible Antenna for Electrocorticography and Related Biotelemetry Devices

A sub-skin-depth (nanoscale metallization) thin film antenna is shown that is monolithically integrated with an array of neural recording electrodes on a flexible polymer substrate. The structure is intended for long-term biometric data and power transfer such as electrocorticographic neural recording in a wireless brain-machine interface system. The system includes a microfabricated thin-film electrode array and a loop antenna patterned in the same microfabrication process, on the same or on separate conductor layers designed to be bonded to an ultra-low power ASIC.

Wireless High-Density Micro-Electrocorticographic Device

A minimally invasive, wireless ECoG microsystem is provided for chronic and stable neural recording. Wireless powering and readout are combined with a dual rectification power management circuitry to simultaneously power to and transmit a continuous stream of data from an implant with a micro ECoG array and an external reader. Area and power reduction techniques in the baseband and wireless subsystem result in over 10x IC area reduction with a simultaneous 3x improvement in power efficiency, enabling a minimally invasive platform for 64-channel recording. The low power consumption of the IC, together with the antenna integration strategy, enables remote powering at 3x below established safety limits, while the small size and flexibility of the implant minimizes the foreign body response.

Systems and Methods for Electrocorticography Signal Acquisition

Systems and methods for biosignal acquisition, and in particular, electrocorticography signal acquisition, are disclosed for small area, low noise recording and digitization of brain signals from electrode arrays.