Melanin is a brown pigment that is delivered to keratinocytes in the skin after being excreted as melanosomes to form melanocytes. The primary function of melanin is to prevent UV-induced nuclear DNA damage. The biological system for induction, production, transfer and degradation of melanosomes is critical to controlling human skin health. Defects in melanin production in humans can cause diseases, such as skin cancer, vitiligo and albinism, many of which lack effective treatments due to their genetic origins. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in the production of synthetic melanin, as a substitute for natural melanin.