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Eradication Of Human Cancer Cells By Antigen Specific Delivery Of Carbon Monxide With A Family Photoactivatable Antibobody Photocorm Conjugates

PhotoCORMs are compounds that release Carbon monoxide (CO) upon exposure to light. CO released from photoCORMs exposed to light is known to cause apoptotic cell death and can sensitize human cancer cells to chemotherapeutics. Drug resistance is often encountered in cancer chemotherapy. In addition, efforts to minimize toxicity from chemotherapy have met with little success. A UC Santa Cruz researcher has developed a system to specifically deliver photoCORMs to tumors and presensitize those tumors to conventional chemotherapy

Livesynthesis: Towards An Interactive Synthesis Flow

In digital circuit design, synthesis is a tedious and time consuming task. Designers wait several hours for relatively small design changes to yield synthesis results. 

A High Capacity Reusable Cationic Material [Ag-Bipy+] [No3] For The Removal Of Perchlorate From Water

Perchlorate is a chemical usually produced commercially that is soluble in water, can easily travel through aqueous systems, and can persist for decades in groundwater. Even in trace amounts, perchlorate can disrupt thyroid hormone production, which can have harmful side effects.  These particular characteristics have made contamination of ground water by perchlorate a major widespread issue, and its decontamination a major challenge. Currently available techniques for removing perchlorate include high pressure water washout and single-use resins for capturing perchlorate.

Flippo The Robo-Shoe-Fly: A Foot Dwelling Social Wearable Companion

Social interactions in school and office settings traditionally involve few coordinated physical interactions, and most group engagement centers on sharing electronic screens. Wearable robot companions are a promising new direction for encouraging coordinated physical movement and social interaction in group settings. A UC Santa Cruz researcher has developed a wearable social companion that encourages users to interact via physical movement.

A Novel Iot Protocol Architecture; Efficiency Through Data And Functionality Sharing Across Layers

The Internet’s TCP/IP protocol architecture is a layered system design. As such, the functions performed by the TCP/IP protocol suite are implemented at different protocol layers, where each layer provides a specific set of services to the layer above through a well-defined interface. Using this interface, data being received or sent is passed up or down the stack on its way through the network.However, layered design approaches can increase overhead, as each layer incurs additional communication (e.g., additional header field) and processing costs. Furthermore, limiting the flow between layers to data plane information restricts the sharing of control information across layers and may lead to functions being duplicated at different layers. 

Water-Soluble Iron-Porphyrin Complexes Capable Of Acting As Antidotes For Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

CO poisoning is the most common form of poisoning worldwide. In the United States alone, over 50,000 emergency department visits each year are attributed to CO exposure. Despite the prevalence of CO poisoning, there is no clinically-approved antidote available.Current best practices involve placing the afflicted subject in fresh air, delivering 100% O2, or administering superatmospheric levels of O2 in a hyperbaric chamber. These treatments all serve to clear CO from the body by displacing it from metalloproteins with O2. The typical half-life of COHb in the bloodstream is 5.3 h, but hyperbaric O2 (1.5-3 atm) can decrease this half-life to < 1 h.Unfortunately, these large chambers are generally located in tertiary care centers to which patients must be transported. Moreover, hospitals typically house only a few such chambers, which would be rapidly overwhelmed in the event of a mass exposure.Although there are no clinically approved antidotes to CO poisoning, two strategies have been described: the creation of molecules that enhance the rate of release of CO from carboxyhemoglobin (formed during CO poisoning) and the creation of molecules that bind CO more strongly than physiologically important proteins such as hemoglobin.  

Deep Junction Low Gain Avalanche Detector

The development of Low-Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGADs) that make controlled use of impact ionization has led to an advancement in the use of silicon diode detectors in particle detection, particularly in the arena of ultrafast (~10 ps) timing. For what are today considered to be “conventional” LGADs, the high fields needed to induce the impact ionization process lead to breakdown between the separated n-p junctions that are used to simultaneously deplete the sensors and establish the readout segmentation. As a result, working devices have included a Junction Termination Extension (JTE) that provide electrostatic isolation between neighboring implants, but at a cost of introducing a dead region between the sensor segments that is insensitive to the deposited charge from an incident particle. The width of this dead region is 50 µm or more, making conventional LGAD sensors inefficient for granularity scales much below 1mm. On the other hand, demands from the particle physics (4D tracking) and photon science (high frame-rate X-Ray imaging) communities call for granularity at the 50 µm scale. Thus, there is great interest in overcoming the current granularity limits of LGAD sensors. There are several ideas, under various levels of development, that have been proposed to circumvent the JTE limitAC-coupled (“AC-LGAD”) LGADs eliminate the need for the JTE by making use of a completely planar (non-segmented) junction structure, and then establish the granularity entirely through the electrode structure, which is AC-coupled to the planar device through a thin layer of insulator. Since charge is not collected directly by the electrodes, there is a point-spread function that relates the signal location to the pad (electrode) response that is a property of the effective AC network formed by the highly doped gain layer just below the insulating layer and the electrode structure. Prototype devices exhibit good response and timing characteristics.Inverse (“ILGAD”) LGADs also eliminate the need for the JTE by making use of a planar junction structure. In this case, the electrode structure is placed on the side of the device opposite the junction. Prototypes with appealing signal characteristics have yet to be produced. In addition, the manufacture of these devices requires processing on both sides of the sensor, which is significantly more difficult than the single-sided processes used for conventional and AC LGADs.Trench-isolated (“TI-LGAD”) LGADs attempt to replace the JTE with a physical trench etched around the edge of the detector segment, which is then filled with insulator. This approach is very new, and its proponents hope to be able to use it to reduce the dead area between segments to as little as 5 µm. First prototypes are just recently available and are under study. Much work remains to be done to show that this approach will produce a stable sensor, and to see how small the dead region can be made.

Synthetic Minimal Hammerhead Nuclease Ribozymes With Greatly Enhanced And Efficient Specific Cleavage Activity

The hammerhead RNA sequence within satellite RNA genomes occurs at theinterface of two monomeric segments of a linear concatamer following rolling circle replication. Although it is, in that context, a single self-cleaving strand of RNA that is capable of catalyzing only a single, albeit highly specific, cleavage reaction, the hammerhead RNA can be artificially engineered to create a true multiple-turnover ribozyme simply by separating the molecule into discrete catalytic and target strands. The latter constructs have been studied in vitro and also correspond to hammerhead ribozyme sequences that have used in targeting other RNAs