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Sucralose has become widely used as an artificial sweetener due in large part that it has low caloric content and is 600 times sweeter than table sugar (sucrose). Due to its resistance to metabolic degradation, sucralose can also be used as a marker for noninvasively assessing gastrointestinal small intestine or colonic permeability. This urinary marker is traditionally analyzed by time consuming and expensive methods, such as high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry or evaporative light scatter as the detectors. We have developed an alternative methodology of using a chemical-fluorescent technique for rapid analysis of halogenated disaccharides, such as sucralose.

Thin Film Deposition System Capable Of Physical Vapor Deposition And Chemical Vapor Deposition Simultaneously

Current commercial thin film deposition systems (e.g. sputtering and atomic layer deposition) allow only one deposition mode, either physical vapor deposition (PVD) or chemical vapor deposition (CVD), in a given process environment. It has been extremely rare, if it has ever been done, that sputtering SPU and atomic layer deposition ALD are unified in a single reaction chamber. SPU and ALD are nominally incompatible to each other, which will be the main challenge in design.

Camera-Based Reader For Blurry And Low-Resolution 1D Barcodes

Virtually every packaged good is labeled with at least one form of barcode; generally, either by EAN or UPC standards. The success of barcode technology for identification, tracking, and inventory derives from its ability to encode information in a compact fashion with very low associated cost. Barcode reading via dedicated scanners is a mature technology. Commercial laser-based hand-held barcode scanners achieve robust readings. Recently, however, there has been growing interest in accessing barcodes with regular cellphone, rather than with a dedicated devices. Since cellphones are of ubiquitous use, this would enable a multitude of mobile applications. For example, a number of cellphone apps have appeared recently that provide access via barcode reading to the full characteristics and user review for a product found at a store. Unfortunately, cellphone camera images generated by low-grade lenses which produce blurred barcode images. Likewise, motion blur along with low ambient light make barcode reading difficult in certain situations.

Linear Lipopeptides As Treatments For Infectious Diseases

Leishmaniasis is a debilitating disease prevalent across many inter-tropical regions of the world. Caused by over twenty species of intracellular parasite from the genus Leishmania, leishmaniasis can present itself in a number of different clinical manifestations including cutaneous, mucosal and visceral forms of the disease. Both the cutaneous and mucosal forms can cause severe disfigurements to patients including ulcerative skin lesions and the destruction of the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth and throat leading to permanent disfigurement and frequent social ostracization. A shortfall of affordable and clinically efficacious treatments has led World Health Organization to designate leishmaniasis as a category 1 disease, signifying that it is an emerging and uncontrolled global health problem. Human African trypanosmiasis or Sleepign sickness is a parasitic disease of people and animals, caused by protozoa of the species Trypanosoma brucei and transmitted by the tsetse fly. It is estimated that 50,000 to 70,000 people are currently infected. The current standard treatment for first stage trypanosomiasis employs administering intravenous pentamidine (for T.b. gambiense) or intravenous suramin (for T.b. rhodesiense).

Adaptive optics with direct wavefront sensing for multi-photon microscope

Biological tissue are rarely transparent, presenting major challenges for deep tissue optical microscopy. With the advantages of high-resolution and viewing of live organisms, optical microscopy has become an important tool for biological research and continues to open new avenues in its capabilities. In recent years, image resolution and speed has been dramatically improved.  However the improvement of the resolution and penetration depth for optical microscopy is still in its infancy. As light passes through biological tissue, it can be absorbed, refracted and scattered, limiting the resolution and depth of optical imaging in biological tissues. Overcoming these challenges will benefit a wide range of applications from basic biological research to clinical investigations.

Efficient Encoding Of Genomic Data Using Deduplication

Today, storage of genome sequence data relies heavily on compression, using techniques such as Lempil ziv and gziv, which is commonly stored in the .BAM or .SAM file format. Current techniques use standard reference genomes, such as HG19, compiled from a variety of human genomes (For example: http://genome.ucsc.edu/FAQ/FAQreleases.html). The results of many small reads are aligned and stored along with their quality data stores. The impact of whole genome sequencing, particularly in clinical treatment of cancer, will rapidly consume available storage. In 2010, 13M Americans had cancer. With existing technology, a single whole genome sequence for each person would be 39 exabyte’s (39,000 petabytes, 39 million terabytes or 39 billion gigabytes). There simply isn't a storage system that large; since storage capacity only grows at a rate of less than 20% per year. 

Fast Frequency Estimator

There are a variety of known approaches to estimate the frequency of a harmonic signal. The straightforward approach of directly measuring the time difference between zero crossings and the number of cycles per second is very sensitive to noise in the signals. Approaches to overcome this problem have been proposed, such as techniques based on the Fourier transform, correlation, least square error techniques, recursive algorithms, chirp Z transform (CZT), adaptive notch filters, and Kalman filtering that estimates instantaneous frequency of the signal. In such problems the filter must deal with the inherent nonlinearity and also with extremely high noise levels. The Kalman filter is a recursive stochastic technique that gives an optimal estimation of state variables of a given linear dynamic system from noisy measurements. The Kalman filter gives a time-varying gain, which is not amenable to frequency domain analysis.

Current-Mode Clock Distribution

Portable electronic devices require long battery lifetimes which can only be obtained by utilizing low-power components. Recently, low-power design has become quite critical in the System-on-chips (SOCs) because interconnect in scaled technologies is consuming an increasingly significant amount of power. Researchers have demonstrated that the major consumers of this power are global buses, clock distribution networks (CDNs) and synchronous signals in general. In addition to power, interconnect delay poses a major obstacle to high-frequency operation. Technology scaling reduces transistor and local interconnect delay while increasing global interconnect delay. Moreover, conventional CDN structures are becoming increasingly difficult for multi-GHz ICs because of skew, jitter, and variability are often in proportional to large latencies. Prior to and in early CMOS technologies, current-mode (CM) logic was the attractive high speed signaling scheme. CM schemes have been used for long global wires or, more commonly, off chip signals. Standard logic signals, however, have remained in voltage mode (VM), to benefit from low static power of CMOS Logic. Researchers at University of California, Santa Cruz, have proposed a scheme with utilizes the power and reliability of CM signaling and yet retain compatibility with low-power CMOS logic.