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Design Random Heteropolymer To Transport Proton Selectively And Rapidly

Despite decades of effort, it remains challenging, if not impossible, to achieve similar transport performance similar to natural channels. Inspired by the known crystal structures of transmembrane channel proteins, protein sequence-structure-transport relationships have been applied to guide material design. However, producing both molecularly defined channel sizes and channel lumen surfaces that are chemically diverse and spatially heterogeneous have been out of reach. We show that a 4-monomer-based random heteropolymer (RHP) exhibits selective proton transport at a rate similar to those of natural proton channels. Statistical control over the monomer distribution in the RHP leads to well-modulated segmental heterogeneity in hydrophobicity, which facilitates the single RHP chains to insert into lipid bilayers. This in turn produces rapid and selective proton transport, despite the sequence variability among RHP chains. We have demonstrated the importance of:the adaptability enabled by the statistical similaritythe modularity afforded by monomer chemical diversity to achieve uniform behavior in heterogeneous systems. 

Deconstructive Diversification Of Cyclic Amines Useful For Proline Tagging

A deconstructive strategy to transform saturated nitrogen heterocycles such as piperidines and pyrrolidines into halogen-containing acyclic amine derivatives through sequential Csp3–N/Csp3–Csp3 single bond cleavage followed by Csp3–halogen bond formation. The resulting acyclic haloamines serve as versatile intermediates that are expediently transformed into a variety of structural motifs through substitution reactions. In this way, skeletal remodeling, which constitutes a scaffold hop, can be achieved. The value of this deconstructive strategy has been demonstrated through the late-stage diversification of proline-containing peptides, thus achieving late-stage proline tagging.

Single Conjugative Vector for Genome Editing by RNA-guided Transposition

The inventors have constructed conjugative plasmids for intra- and inter-species delivery and expression of RNA-guided CRISPR-Cas transposases for organism- and site-specific genome editing by targeted transposon insertion. This invention enables integration of large, customizable DNA segments (encoded within a transposon) into prokaryotic genomes at specific locations and with low rates of off-target integration.

Reticulation Of Macromolecules Into Crystalline Networks

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are 2D or 3D extended periodic networks assembled from symmetric, shape persistent molecular 5 building blocks through strong, directional bonds. Traditional COF growth strategies heavily rely on reversible condensation reactions that guide the reticulation toward a desired thermodynamic equilibrium structure. The requirement for dynamic error correction, however, limits the choice of building blocks and thus the associated mechanical and electronic properties imbued within the periodic lattice of the COF.   UC Berkeley researchers have demonstrated the growth of crystalline 2D COFs from a polydisperse macromolecule derived from single-layer graphene, bottom-up synthesized quasi one-dimensional (1D) graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy revealed that 2D sheets of GNR-COFs self-assembled at a liquid-l quid interface stack parallel to the layer boundary and exhibit an orthotropic crystal packing. Liquid-phase exfoliation of multilayer GNR-COF crystals gave access to large area bilayer and trilayer cGNR-COF films. The functional integration of extended 1D materials into crystalline COFs greatly expands the structural complexity and the scope of mechanical and physical materials properties.

Temporal Control over DNA-Patterned Signaling Ligands In Vitro Using Sequence-Targeting Nucleases

UC Berkeley researchers have created a new technique that can rapidly “print” two-dimensional arrays of cells and proteins that mimic a wide variety of cellular environments in the body, be it the brain tissue surrounding a neural stem cell, the lining of the intestine or liver or the cellular configuration inside a tumor.  In the new technique, each cell or protein is tethered to a substrate with a short string of DNA. While similar methods have been developed that attach tethered cells or proteins one by one.  By repeating the process, up to 10 different kinds of cells or proteins can be tethered to the surface in an arbitrary pattern. This technique could help scientists develop a better understanding of the complex cell-to-cell messaging that dictates a cell’s final fate, from neural stem cell differentiating into a brain cell to a tumor cell with the potential to metastasize to an embryonic stem cell becoming an organ cell.

Cellular Potassium Imaging Using A Ratiometric Fluorescent Sensor

The inventors developed a ratiometric fluorescent small molecule probe for potassium ion detection composed of a duo-fluorophore system (KR-1). UV-vis detector and fluorometer measurement support ratiometric response of the probe towards potassium ion concentration. The probe was further applied to cellular potassium level detection using confocal microscope imaging technique. KR-1 enables simple determination of potassium levels in various cancer or non-cancer cell lines.

Rheological Tuning of the Crystal Growth

Solutions of shear-thinning polymers are known to decrease in viscosity as a shear force is applied to the solution. In this work, the inventors show that by pre-shearing a shear-thinning polymer solution mixed with a precursor solution of a semiconducting crystal we can tune the size and morphology of the growing crystals, which governs the optoelectronic properties of the formed crystals. By pre-shearing the solution we are able to lower the viscosity of the solution, which plays a key role in the liquid phase processing (eg., coating processes). By forming a thinner, low-viscosity coating, we are able to tune the nucleation and growth rate of the crystals to form crystals that are smaller and more uniformly distributed in size, leading to a uniform and conformal coating. This approach allows us to coat a uniform layer of semiconducting crystals, which is necessary for developing functional optoelectronic devices.

Covalent Organic Framework With Exceptional Water Sorption Properties

A new covalent organic framework (COF) with defective square lattice topology and exceptional water sorption properties stemming fro its unique framework structure. The COF exhibits a working capacity of 0.23 g(H2O)/g(COF) between 20 and 40% relative humidity without displaying hysteretic behavior. Furthermore, it maintains these promising water sorption properties after several uptake and release cycles. This material could be used as a sorbent for water harvesting or other water sorption related applications.

Low Band Gap Graphene Nanoribbon Electronic Devices

This invention creates a new graphene nanoribbons (GNR)-based transistor technology capable of pushing past currently projected limits in the operation of digital electronics for combining high current (i.e. high speed) with low-power and high on/off ratio. The inventors describe the design and synthesis of molecular precursors for low band gap armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) featuring a width of N=11 and N=15 carbon atoms, their growth into AGNRs, and their integration into functional electronic devices (e.g. transistors). N is the number of carbon atoms counted in a chain across the width and perpendicular to the long axis of the ribbon.

Illumination Device for Dynamic Spatiotemporal Control of Photostimulation

A programmable LED device that illuminates multiple spatial locations (termed wells) with user-defined light patterns whose intensity can be modulated as a function of space and time. The devices are used for optogenetic stimulation of tissue culture plates (24-well and 96-well) kept in a heated and humidified tissue culture incubator, as well as photopatterning of hydrogels. In brief, light from LEDs passes through optical elements that ensure uniform illumination of each well. Parameters of the optical system, such as LED configuration, optical diffuser elements, materials, and geometry, were modeled and optimized using the optical ray tracing software Zemax OpticStudio. An electronics subsystem allows programmed control of illumination intensity and temporal sequences, with independent control of each well. Spatial precision is conveyed through a photomask attached to the culture plate. The hardware design also includes a cooling system and vibration isolation to reduce heating and damage to the sample. Lastly, a graphical user interface (GUI) was used to wirelessly program the illumination intensity and temporal sequences for each well. The devices can thus illuminate 24 independent channels with visible, NIR, or UV light with intensity ranges of 0 to 20-100 microwatts per millimeter-squared with 16-bit intensity resolution, and a temporal resolution of 1 millisecond and spatial resolution of 100 microns. In summary, the device allows uniform illumination of multiple wells for multiplexed photoactivation or photopolymerization of various substrates (light-responsive bacterial or mammalian cells grown in tissue culture, hydrogels, dyes, etc) with user-defined patterns. The device can be combined with a robotic handler, microscope, spectrometer, etc, to enable high-throughput illumination and simultaneous recording of the sample.

Targeted Ionophore-Based Metal Supplementation

Metal deficiency is implicated in a variety of genetic, neurological, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases. Current approaches for addressing metal deficiency rely on generic metal ion supplementation, which can potentially lead to detrimental off-target metal accumulation in unwanted tissues and subsequently trigger oxidative stress and damage cascades. The inventors have developed a new modular platform for delivering metal ions in a tissue-specific manner and demonstrate liver-targeted copper supplementation as a proof of concept of this strategy. Specifically, the inventors designed and synthesized a N-acetylgalactosamine-functionalized ionophore, Gal-Cu(gtsm), to serve as a copper-carrying “Trojan Horse” that targets liver-localized asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPRs) and releases copper only after being taken up by cells, where the reducing intracellular environment triggers copper release from the ionophore. The inventors utilized a combination of bioluminescence imaging and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry assays to establish ASGPR-dependent copper accumulation with this reagent in both liver cell culture and mouse models with minimal toxicity. The modular nature of this synthetic approach presages that this platform can be expanded to deliver a broader range of metals to specific cells, tissues, and organs in a more directed manner to treat metal deficiency in disease. This patent broadly covers directed metal delivery to select organs, tissues, and organelles.

A Protein Inhibitor Of Cas9

  Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 nucleases, when complexed with a guide RNA, effect genome editing in a sequence-specific manner. RNA-guided Cas9 has proven to be a versatile tool for genome engineering in multiple cell types and organisms.  There is a need in the art for additional compositions and methods for controlling genome editing activity of CRISPR/Cas9.   UC Berkeley researchers have discovered a new protein that is able to inhibit the Cas9 protein from Staphyloccocus aureus (SauCas9). SauCas9 is smaller than the frequently used Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes, which has a number of benefits for delivery. The inhibitor is a small protein from a phage and is capable of strongly inhibiting gene editing in human cells.

NANOPORE MEMBRANE DEVICE AND METHODS OF USE THEREOF

Several chemical, physical, and biological techniques have been used for delivering macromolecules into living cells. Delivery of biomolecules into living cells is essential for biomedical research and drug development as well as genome editing. However, conventional methods of delivery of biomolecules such as viral vectors, cell penetrating peptides, cationic lipids, positive charged polymers, bulk electroporation, and microinjection pose several challenges. Such challenges include safety concerns, toxicity, damage to the cells, limited loading capacity, low delivery efficiencies, low cell viabilities, low cell throughput, high cellular perturbation, and high costs.  Thus, there is a need for delivery devices and methods that allow for permeabilization of the cell membrane to facilitate delivery of biomolecules into cells.   UC Berkeley researchers have developed a universal delivery electroporation system that makes cell transfection very simple for all of types of cells. The technology can be used to replace conventional cellular delivery methods such as cationic lipid, positive charged polymer and bulk electroporation as well as microinjection.  The system can deliver biomolecules (e.g., DNA, RNA, proteins, nucleic acid-protein complexes (e.g., RNPs)) or other reagents into all cell types, including T-cells, which cannot be efficiently transfected with conventional approaches.  

Cas12-mediated DNA Detection Reporter Molecules

Class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems are streamlined versions in which a single Cas protein (an effector protein, e.g., a type V Cas effector protein such as Cpf1) bound to RNA is responsible for binding to and cleavage of a targeted sequence. The programmable nature of these minimal systems has facilitated their use as a versatile technology that continues to revolutionize the field of genome manipulation.    Cas12 is an RNA-guided protein that binds and cuts any matching DNA sequence. Binding of the Cas12-CRISPR RNA (crRNA) complex to a matching single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) or double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule activates the protein to non-specifically degrade any ssDNA in trans. Cas12a-dependent target binding can be coupled to a reporter molecule to provide a direct readout for DNA detection within a sample.  UC Berkeley researchers have developed compositions, systems, and kits having labeled single stranded reporter DNA molecules that provide a sensitive readout for detection of a target DNA. 

Enhanced Speed Polymerases For Sanger Sequencing

Sanger sequencing has remained a dominant DNA sequencing methodology for molecular biology research and development for many years.  The main commercially available DNA polymerase developed for Sanger sequencing has a slow extension speed and has difficulties sequencing secondary structures such as GC rich regions, hairpins, mono- and poly-nucleotide repeats.  While specialized plastics and reductions in reaction volumes to improve Sanger sequencing reaction times, any gains in sequencing assay performance (e.g., sequencing time or throughput) are offset by increased costs associated with a terminator reagent.  During the last two decades, further refinement and advancement of suitable DNA polymerases to improve polymerization speeds during Sanger sequencing have been limited.  Thus, there remains a need for improved DNA polymerases suitable for Sanger sequencing that possess enhanced elongation speeds, and the ability to sequence through secondary structures present in DNA templates.    A UC Berkeley researchers has discovered compositions and methods for preparing and using Taq DNA polymerases with improved Sanger sequencing elongation sequencing rates as compared to commercially available Sanger sequencing reagents.  

Protein-Coated Microparticles For Protein Standardization In Single-Cell Assays

Single-cell analysis offers powerful capabilities of identification of rare sub-populations of cells, understanding heterogeneity of cancerous tumors, and tracking cell differentiation and reprogramming. Despite great potentials for uncovering new biological systems and targeting diseases with precision medicine, single-cell approaches are composed of complex device processes that can cause bias in measurement.  In deep sequencing, technical variation in single cell expression data occurs during capture and pre-amplification steps. Similarly, in single-cell protein assays, technical variability can obscure functionally relevant variance.    To better control protein measurement quality in single-cell assays, researchers at the University of California, Berkeley developed a novel method to loading and release protein standard. This method utilizes the surface of modified and functionalized microparticles as vehicles to capture target proteins with desired concentrations. Chelation-assisted click chemistry is applied to demonstrate that protein standards with different molecular masses can be loaded and bounded in a single-cell protein assay. Microparticles are introduced into single-cell devices by either passive gravity, magnetic attraction, or other physicochemical forces. These protein standards from microparticles provide a reference to measure protein mass sizes from individual cells and a quality control for any biases in device fabrication, cell lysis, protein solubility, protein capture, and protein readouts (i.e. antibody probing).   

Endoribonucleases For Rna Detection And Analysis

96 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Bacteria and archaea possess adaptive immune systems that rely on small RNAs for defense against invasive genetic elements. CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) genomic loci are transcribed as long precursor RNAs, which must be enzymatically cleaved to generate mature CRISPR-derived RNAs (crRNAs) that serve as guides for foreign nucleic acid targeting and degradation. This processing occurs within the repetitive sequence and is catalyzed by a dedicated CRISPR-associated (Cas) family member in many CRISPR systems.  Endoribonucleases that process CRISPR transcripts are bacterial or archaeal enzymes capable of catalyzing sequence- and structure- specific cleavage of a single- stranded RNA. These enzymes cleave a specific phosphodiester bond within a specific RNA sequence.  UC Berkeley researchers discovered variant Cas endoribonucleases, nucleic acids encoding the variant Cas endoribonucleases, and host cells genetically modified with the nucleic acids that can be used, potentially in conjunction with Cas9, to detect a specific sequence in a target polyribonucleotide and of regulating production of a target RNA in a eukaryotic cell.  For example, it was found that the variant Cas endoribonuclease has an amino acid substitution at a histidine residue such that is is enzymatically inactive in the absence of imidazole and is activatable in the presence of imidazole.  

Printed All-Organic Reflectance Oximeter Array

A flexible reflectance oximeter array (ROA) composed of printed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic photodiodes (OPDs), which senses reflected light from tissue to determine the oxygen saturation. Since reflected light is used as the signal, the sensor array can be used beyond the conventional sensing locations. We implemented the ROA to measure SpO2 on the forehead with 1.1% mean error and to create two-dimensional (2D) oxygenation maps of the adult forearm under pressure cuff-induced ischemia. Due to the mechanical flexibility, 2D oxygenation mapping capability, and the ability to place the sensor in diverse places, the ROA is promising for novel medical sensing applications such as mapping oxygenation in tissues, wounds, or transplanted organs.

Selective Nitrogen Adsorption Using a Vanadium Metal-Organic Framework

Natural gas, composed primarily of methane, has many potential uses as a cleaner and more renewable source of energy than other fossil fuels. However, about 20% of US natural gas reserves contain levels of N2 that are too high for pipeline processing. Using natural gas from renewable sources also encounters this problem. Furthermore, in processing steps to create high-purity methane from its various sources, the removal of N2 remains a significant energetic cost. This separation is typically performed through cryogenic distillation, and improvements in energy efficiency of this separation are necessary to utilize the many available sources of methane. Switching to membrane or adsorbent-based technologies could potentially alleviate this challenge. Size selective molecular sieves and membranes have demonstrated some ability for separating N2 from CH4, but face problems with scalability and selectivity; and current adsorbents need significant improvements in selectivity and capacity for N2 to be commercially viable.  To address this situation, researchers at UC Berkeley have developed a new adsorbent V2Cl2(btdd) with exceptional affinity for nitrogen, such that early experiments already demonstrate a N2/CH4 selectivity of over 10x greater than any reported material. The Berkeley material is a permanently porous vanadium(II)-containing metal-organic framework (MOF). It represents the first example of a MOF with five-coordinate vanadium(II) centers as the primary metal node. The electronic properties of these five-coordinate V(II) centers make this MOF uniquely reactive towards relatively inert and weak electron acceptors, such as nitrogen, creating a stronger M–N2 interaction than any known MOF. Additionally, the high-density of V(II) centers translates to a high gas uptake capacity, qualifying this material as a promising N2/CH4 selective adsorbant. Key performance parameters can be tuned as the building blocks are synthetically modifiable.

Type V CRISPR/CAS Effector Proteins for Cleaving ssDNA and Detecting Target DNA

Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Class 2 CRISPR–Cas systems (e.g., type V CRISPR/Cas systems such as Cas12 family systems) are characterized by effector modules that include a single effector protein. For example, in a type V CRISPR/Cas system, the effector protein - a CRISPR/Cas endonuclease (e.g., a Cas12a protein) - interacts with (binds to) a corresponding guide RNA (e.g., a Cas12a guide RNA) to form a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that is targeted to a particular site in a target nucleic acid via base pairing between the guide RNA and a target sequence within the target nucleic acid molecule.  Thus, like CRISPR-Cas9, Cas12 has been harnessed for genome editing based on its ability to generate targeted, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) breaks.   UC Berkeley researchers have discovered that RNA-guided DNA binding unleashes indiscriminate single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) cleavage activity by Cas12a that completely degrades ssDNA molecules. The researchers found that target-activated, non-specific ssDNase cleavage is also a property of other type V CRISPR-Cas12 enzymes. By combining Cas12a ssDNase activation with isothermal amplification, the researchers were able to achieve attomolar sensitivity for DNA detection.  For example, rapid and specific detection of human papillomavirus in patient samples was achieved using these methods and compositions.   

Computed Axial Lithography (CAL) For 3D Additive Manufacturing

Additive manufacturing fabrication methods are proliferating rapidly, with photopolymer-based approaches comprising some of the most prominent methods. These stereolithographic techniques provide a useful balance of resolution, build speed, process control, and capital cost (system metrics that typically must be traded off one against another). Resolving the speed limitations, surface roughness (stair-step artifacts), and requirements for support structures would provide the next major steps forward in the progress of these technologies.To address this potential, researchers at UC Berkeley have developed a system and method that accomplishes volumetric fabrication by applying computed tomography techniques in reverse, fabricating structures by exposing a photopolymer resin volume from multiple angles, updating the light field at each angle. The necessary light fields are spatially and/or temporally multiplexed, such that their summed energy dose in a target resin volume crosslinks the resin into a user-defined geometry. These light-fields may be static or dynamic and may be generated by a spatial light modulator that controls either the phase or the amplitude of a light field (or both) to provide the necessary intensity distribution.

THERMOSTABLE RNA-GUIDED ENDONUCLEASES AND METHODS OF USE THEREOF (GeoCas9)

96 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} The CRISPR-Cas system is now understood to confer bacteria and archaea with acquired immunity against phage and viruses. CRISPR-Cas systems consist of Cas proteins, which are involved in acquisition, targeting and cleavage of foreign DNA or RNA, and a CRISPR array, which includes direct repeats flanking short spacer sequences that guide Cas proteins to their targets. The programmable nature of these systems has facilitated their use as a versatile technology that is revolutionizing the field of genome manipulation. There is a need in the art for additional CRISPR-Cas systems with improved cleavage and manipulation under a variety of conditions and ones that are particularly thermostable under those conditions.     UC researchers discovered a new type of RNA-guided endonuclease (GeoCas9) and variants of GeoCas9.  GeoCas9 was found to be stable and enzymatically active in a temperature range of from 15°C to 75°C and has extended lifetime in human plasma.  With evidence that GeoCas9 maintains cleavage activity at mesophilic temperatures, the ability of GeoCas9 to edit mammalian genomes was then assessed.  The researchers found that when comparing the editing efficiency for both GeoCas9 and SpyCas9, similar editing efficiencies by both proteins were observed, demonstrating that GeoCas9 is an effective alternative to SpyCas9 for genome editing in mammalian cells.  Similar to CRISPR-Cas9, GeoCas9 enzymes are expected to have a wide variety of applications in genome editing and nucleic acid manipulation.   

Gene Delivery Into Mature Plants Using Carbon Nanotubes

96 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Current methods of biomolecule delivery to mature plants are limited due to the presence of plant cell wall, and are additionally hampered by low transfection efficiency, high toxicity of the transfection material, and host range limitation. For this reason, transfection is often limited to protoplast cultures where the cell wall is removed, and not to the mature whole plant.  Unfortunately, protoplasts are not able to regenerate into fertile plants, causing these methods to have low practical applicability. Researchers at the University of California have developed a method for delivery of genetic materials into mature plant cells within a fully-developed mature plant leaf, that is species-independent. This method utilizes a nano-sized delivery vehicle for targeted and passive transport of biomolecules into mature plants of any plant species. The delivery method is inexpensive, easy, and robust, and can transfer biomolecules into all phenotypes of any plant species with high efficiency and low toxicity.

Au(III) Complexes For [18F] Trifluoromethylation

96 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} The biological properties of trifluoromethyl compounds (e.g, CF3) have led to their ubiquity in pharmaceuticals, yet their chemical properties have made their preparation a substantial challenge, necessitating innovative chemical solutions.  For example, strong, non-interacting C-F bonds lend metabolic stability while simultaneously limiting the ability of chemical transformations to forge the relevant linkages and install the CF3 unit.  When these same synthetic considerations are extended toward the synthesis of trifluoromethylated positron emission tomography (PET) tracers, the situation becomes more complex.   UC Berkeley researchers discovered an unusual alternative mechanism, in which borane abstracts fluoride from the CF3 group in a gold complex. The activated CF2 fragment can then bond to a wide variety of other carbon substituents added to the same gold center. Return of the fluoride liberates a trifluoromethylated compound from the metal. This mechanism would be useful for the introduction of radioactive fluoride substituents for potential tracers to be used for positron emission tomography applications.

Simultaneous Doctor Blading Of Different Colored Organic Light Emitting Diodes

Methods for the simultaneous printing via doctor blading of at least two different colored emissive layers for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) on a single substrate.

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