Researchers at the UCLA Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior have developed magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) functionalized with deoxyglucose that can be used as tissue-specific contrast agents for MRI. These novel MNPs can help physicians and researchers to differentiate neoplastic, epileptic, parkinsonian, or Alzheimer tissues from normal tissue based on the metabolic activity of the tissue.
A number of imaging techniques are currently used to diagnose, stage, and monitor neurological disorders and tumors, but each available technique has major drawbacks and limitations. For example, electroencephalograms (electric) and magnetoencephalogram (magnetic) are only sensitive to sources that are up to a few centimeters below the scalp surface and cannot detect epileptic sources of activity that are deeper in the brain parenchyma. Also, these methods rely on the presence of ictal or interictal activity, which may not be present at the time of recording. Electrocorticogram and depth-implanted electrodes, which are two additional electric-based detection techniques are invasive surgical techniques of considerable cost and cause discomfort in patients. For tumor detection and grading, radioactive techniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET), PET-CT, and single photon emission computed tomography, are often used. These techniques require radioactive substances that have short half-life times, are not widely available, and are limited in their usefulness as diagnostic techniques. Thus, a non-invasive method that allows for the accurate, high-contrast differentiation between disease tissue from (either cancer or neurological disorders) normal tissue would be greatly beneficial to patients and healthcare professionals.
Researchers at UCLA Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior have developed magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) that have been functionalized and can be injected into the blood stream of a patient to differentiate anatomically and functionally, neoplastic, epileptic, parkinsonian, or Alzheimer tissues from normal tissue on MRI scans. This technology acts as a tissue-specific contrast agent for MRI that allows physicians and researchers to image normal and disease tissue based on their levels of metabolic and functional activity in order to supplement their diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment plan for the patient. The MNPs are designed to pass the blood brain barrier, which allows for imaging of the central nervous system, and have a long half-life, which makes it feasible to monitor development and progression of tissue changes over time without the need for renewed administration of the imaging agent. Further, disease-specific MNP derivatives have been produced by attaching additional functional groups, such as other single molecules, antibodies, carbohydrates, and polypeptides. The additional attachments could provide more specific tissue targeting or aid in treating the patient’s condition. For example, MNPs equipped with levodopa, or L-DOPA, could be used to diagnose and aid in treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease.
The inventors have generated glucose-conjugated as well as over a a dozen other distinct -conjugated MNPs, and have used them to detect glioma, medulloblastoma, lung and colon cancers, Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases, and localize epilepsy in animal models.
|Germany||Issued Patent||60 2009 052 661.8||06/18/2018||2008-030|
|United Kingdom||Issued Patent||2265174||06/18/2018||2008-030|
|Netherlands (Holland)||Issued Patent||2265174||06/18/2018||2008-030|
|United States Of America||Issued Patent||9,011,913||04/21/2015||2008-030|
|United States Of America||Issued Patent||8,445,021||05/21/2013||2008-030|
|United States Of America||Published Application||20130251641||09/26/2013||2008-030|
Medical Imaging, Epilepsy, Central Nervous System, Cancer, Oncology, magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, computed tomography, CT, positron emission tomography, PET, magnetic nanoparticles, functionalized nanoparticles, targeted therapeutics, blood-brain barrier