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High Electromechanical Coupling Disk Resonators

Capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators routinely post Q several times higher than piezoelectric counterparts, making them the preferred platform for HF and low-VHF (e.g. 60-MHz) timing oscillators, as well as very narrowband (e.g. channel-select) low-loss filters. However, the small electromechanical coupling (as gauged by the resonator's motion-to-static capacitance ratio, Cx/Co) of these resonators at higher frequency prevents sub-mW GSM reference oscillators and complicates the realization of wider bandwidth filters. To address this situation, researchers at UC Berkeley developed a capacitive-gap transduced radial mode disk resonator with reduced mass and stiffness. This novel Berkeley disk resonator has a measured electromechanical coupling strength (Cx/Co) of 0.56% at 123 MHz without electrode-to-resonator gap scaling. This is an electromechanical coupling strength improvement of more than 5x compared with a conventional radial contour-mode disk at the same frequency. This increase should help improve the passbands of channel-select filters targeted for low power wireless transceivers and lower the power of MEMS-based oscillators.  

Stroboscopic Universal Structure-Energy Flow Correlation Scattering Microscopy

Flexible semiconductors are far less costly, resource and energy intensive than conventional silicon production. Yet, as an unintended consequence of semiconductor printing, the films produced contain structural heterogeneities, or defects, which can limit their capacity to shuttle energy, or, information, over device-relevant scales. To be able to fully embrace this new, greener process, it is essential to elucidate which physical material properties most influence energy flow and which defects are most deleterious to efficient energy transport so that they can be targeted for elimination at the materials processing stage. Although some rather complex approaches have recently been used to track energy flow, the applicability of each one depends on specifics of the semiconductor properties (bandgap, excitonic vs charge carrier form of excitation, strong absorption or emission). Existing techniques cannot therefore be applied to a broad range of materials, and often necessitate adapting samples to fit the specific requirements of the technique. A broadly applicable approach is therefore needed to non-invasively and simultaneously reveal and correlate material morphology and energy flow patterns across many scales.    Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley have developed a new high-sensitivity, non-invasive, label-free, time-resolved optical scattering microscope able to map the flow of energy in any semiconductor, and correlate it in situ to the semiconductor morphology. This device has been shown as a far simpler approach to spatio-temporally characterize the flow of energy in either charge or exciton form, irrespective of the electronic properties of the material, and with few-nm precision. Furthermore, built into this approach is the unprecedented capability to perform in situ correlation to the underlying physical structure of the material. 

Nanocone Metasurface For Omni-Directional Detector And Photovoltaics

Reducing reflection from surfaces is very important for improving the efficiency of solar cells and photodetectors, producing improved optical displays with less glare as well as coatings for high power optical applications. Without anti-reflection (AR), semiconductor surfaces reflect 30-40% of incident light and glass reflects 10-20% even at normal incidence and >70% with large incident angles.  Traditional methods for achieving anti-reflection are through thin film AR coating. The traditional AR coating is designed to be a quarter-wavelength in thickness (typically 50-100 nm) and has refractive index equal to the geometric mean of the two refractive indices of the media between which antireflection is desired. Antireflection is achieved using destructive interference and is necessarily a narrow-band and narrow-angle effect. The anti-reflective performance deteriorates as incidence angle increases and is particularly severe beyond 40-50 degrees. This is a major issue in the presence of diffuse light, which is the case in any realistic environment.  Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley have developed a novel  Nanocone Metasurface that is able to address what AR coating is unable to do at high incident angles. This method significantly augments the properties of a traditional thin film AR coating. A nanocone array is made of silicon nitride sitting on a thin silicon nitride layer. This underlying layer is similar to a traditional thin film AR coating. Underneath the nanocone metasurface is a indium gallium phosphide absorber. The nanocone metasurface serves as an omni-directional anti-reflection coating thereby collecting light from all directions.

Advanced Chemical Sensing Method and Apparatus

Conventional chemical sensors or chemical resistors detect the molecule concentration by monitoring the resistance change caused by the reaction near the sensing material surface. One of the problems with these systems is with drift, when over time the analyte molecules poison the device’s sensing surface, causing weaker performance on selectivity and sensitivity. This often requires rigorous and timely calibrations to the sensor, which involves human intervention, and often times complete sensor replacement. To address this problem, researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, have developed a vertical platform that dramatically improves the sensor’s ability to manage and recover from the poison environments. By examining and manipulating the sensing plane vis-à-vis the near field surface, researchers have demonstrated an effective and robust chemical sensing platform for a range of gas sensing applications.

Printable Repulsive-Force Electrostatic Actuator Methods and Device

Flexible electrostatic actuators are well designed for a range of commercial applications, from small micro-mechanical robotics to large vector displays or sound wall systems. Electrostatic actuation provides efficient, low-power, fast-response driving and control of movable nano-, micro-, and macro-structures. While commercially available electrostatic actuators have the requisite high levels of mechanical energy / force for some applications, their energy requirements are typically orders of magnitude higher than what is needed in large-area, low-power applications. Moreover, conventional approaches to these types of electrostatic actuators have limited design geometries and are prone to reliability issues like electrical shorts. To address these problems, researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, have experimented with planar electrostatic actuators using novel printing and electrode patterning and engineering techniques. The team has demonstrated a repulsive-force electrostatic actuator device (100 mm x 60 mm achieved) with extremely high field strength and high voltage operation and without insulator coatings or air breakdown.

RF-Powered Micromechanical Clock Generator

Realizing the potential of massive sensor networks requires overcoming cost and power challenges. When sleep/wake strategies can adequately limit a network node's sensor and wireless power consumption, then the power limitation comes down to the real-time clock (RTC) that synchronizes sleep/wake cycles. With typical RTC battery consumption on the order of 1µW, a low-cost printed battery with perhaps 1J of energy would last about 11 days. However, if a clock could bleed only 10nW from this battery, then it would last 3 years. To attain such a clock, researchers at UC Berkeley developed a mechanical circuit that harnesses squegging to convert received RF energy (at -58dBm) into a local clock while consuming less than 17.5nW of local battery power. The Berkeley design dispenses with the conventional closed-loop positive feedback approach to realize an RCT (along with its associated power consumption) and removes the need for a sustaining amplifier altogether. 

Shaped Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer Device

Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (pMUTs) have attracted industry attention for their good acoustic matching, small geometry, low cost-by-batch fabrication, and compatibilities with CMOS and consumer electronics. While planar pMUTs have reasonable performance over bulk piezoelectric transducers, certain deficits remain in terms of coupling and acoustic pressure outputs, DC displacements, bandwidth, and power consumption. To address these deficiencies, researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, have developed a next generation of shaped pMUTs which are no longer fully defined by resonance frequency and can accommodate larger pressure outputs and bandwidths. This new pMUT apparatus can significantly boost overall performance while dramatically reducing power as compared to flat diaphragm state-of-the-art pMUTs.

Apparatus and Method for 2D-based Optoelectronic Imaging

The use of electric fields for signaling and manipulation is widespread, mediating systems spanning the action potentials of neuron and cardiac cells to battery technologies and lab-on-a-chip devices. Current FET- and dye-based techniques to detect electric field effects are systematically difficult to scale, costly, or perturbative. Researchers at the University of California Berkeley have developed an optical detection platform, based on the unique optoelectronic properties of two-dimensional materials that permits high-resolution imaging of electric fields, voltage, acidity, strain and bioelectric action potentials across a wide field-of-view.

Improved 3D Transistor

This case helps reinvent the transistor by building on the success of Berkeley’s 3D FinFET/Trigate/Tri-Gate methods and devices, with increased focus on the negative capacitance of the MOS-channel and ferroelectrics, and an unconventional effective oxide thickness approach to the gate dielectric. Proof of concept devices have been demonstrated at 30nm gate length and allow for use of thinner ferroelectric films than 2D negative capacitance transistors (e.g. see http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu/techreports/ucb/text/EECS-2014-226.pdf ). The devices also performed at low operating voltage which lowers operating power.

Methods and Apparatus for EUV Mask Defect Inspection

Since the 1970s, the semiconductor industry has strived to shrink the cost and size of circuit patterns printed onto computer chips in accordance with Moore’s law, doubling the number of transistors on a computer’s central processing unit (CPU) every two years. The introduction of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, printing chips using 13-nm-wavelength light, opens the way to future generations of smaller, faster, and cheaper semiconductors. There are serious challenges with EUV masks as compared with conventional optical transmissive mask behavior including the multi-layer stack of silicon and molybdenum as a complex reflector of EUV light. Moreover, research into non-optical solutions (e.g. e-beam) is expected to take many years and $100Ms of dollars to reach market maturity. To address these problems, researchers at UC Berkeley and Berkeley Lab worked with the IMPACT+ research team to create a unique optical approach called Optimized Pupil Engineering (OPE) which can detect and characterize mask defects with an 80% enhancement on defect Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) as compared to current systems. This significant improvement reduces false positives and includes pattern and multilayer defects, while it leverages optical-based reticle platforms on the market today. OPE could one day be also used to characterize a variety of semiconductor masks and not limited to EUV lithography.

Enhancing Photoluminescence Quantum Yield for High Performance Optoelectrics

Surface defects dominate the behavior of minority carriers in semiconductors and optoelectronic devices. Photoluminescence quantum yield (QY), which dictates efficiency of optoelectrics such as LEDs, lasers, and solar cells, is extremely low in materials with a large number of surface defects. Researchers at UC Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have developed a bis(trifluoromethane) sulfonamide (TFSI) solution for passivation/repair of surface defects in 2D transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC). This air-stable solution-based chemical treatment provides unmatched photoluminescence QY enhancement to values near 100% without changing the surface morphology. The treatment eliminates defect-mediated non-radiative recombination, which eliminates the low performance limit of TMDC and enhances its minority carrier lifetime. This novel development can address surface passivation in numerous semiconductors which will lead to highly efficient light emitting diodes, lasers and solar cells based on 2D materials.

Monolithic 3D Printing of Smart Objects

The number of interconnected sensors and actuators are expected to grow beyond thousands of units per person by 2020, and new manufacturing processes will be required for personalization and seamless integration of such devices into our surrounding objects. One major general challenge for manufacturers is with scaling production of mechanically sophisticated and tailored objects while maintaining or improving efficiency. 3D printing may be an excellent candidate for manufacturing at scale as it enables on-demand and rapid manufacturing of user-defined objects. However, traditional 3D approaches have a unique set of challenges due to incompatible processing approaches with metals with plastics. To address these challenges, researchers at UC Berkeley have developed novel 3D printing techniques for fully-integrated smart objects that embed liquid metal-based passive/active components and silicon integrated circuits to achieve greater system-level functionalities. For demonstration, UC researchers created a form-fitting glove with embedded programmable heater, temperature sensor, and the associated control electronics for thermotherapeutic treatment, specifically tailored to an individual’s body. These novel processes can enable assembly of electronic components into complex 3D architectures, which may provide a new platform for creating personalized smart objects in volume.

Cross Reactive FET Array for Gas Mixture Detection

Conventional chemical sensor discriminates different analytes by rejecting the interference using selective decorations on the sensor body. A cross-reactive chemical sensor array discriminates different analytes by interpreting the collective sensor response using signal processing technique, and solves for the interference. Commercial sensor manufacturers search for the optimal choice of material, identifier and the signal processing technique to maximize the sensor performance in terms of chemical detection and discrimination. To address the need, researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, have developed a platform with 2D material incorporated in a cross-reactive field effect transistor (FET) sensor array. By examining and manipulating the properties of the sensor array, researchers have invented a low power, high efficiency, and versatile chemical sensing technology that is promising for commercialization.

Enhanced Patterning Of Integrated Circuits

Information and communication technologies rely on integrated circuits (ICs) or “chips.” Increased integration has improved system performance and energy efficiency, and lowered the manufacturing cost per component. Moore’s Law predicts that the number of transistors on an IC will double every two years, yet industry experts predict that we are reaching economic limits of traditional circuit patterning processes. Photolithographic patterning is best suited to print linear features that are evenly spaced. The smaller or more complex the shape, the more likely the printed pattern will be blurred and unusable. Although multiple-patterning techniques can be used to increase feature density on ICs, they bring a high additional cost to the process. This means that the most advanced ICs available today have a high density of features, but are restricted to having simple patterns and are increasingly expensive to produce. Without innovations in production techniques, Moore’s Law will reach its end in the near future.  To address this issue, researchers at UC Berkeley have developed a one-step method to increase feature density on chips. This method is capable of achieving arbitrarily small feature size, and self-aligns to pre-existing features on the surface formed by other techniques. 

Self-Anchoring Nickel Microelectrodes Embedded In Thermoplastics For Lab-On-Chip Devices

Microfluidic technologies have demonstrated great potential in a wide variety of fields, providing accurate and reliable management of small samples and reagents. Healthcare is particularly well-positioned to benefit from this technology with an ongoing rise in demand for point-of-care (POC) health technologies, including concepts such as lab-on-a-chip (LOC). Despite their promise, these LOC devices have not been widely commercialized or adopted primarily because of the critical transition from an initial research design into a final product. To overcome this challenge, differences in the fabrication methods used in the research process and in final industrial production need to be eliminated.To meet this challenge, investigators at UC Berkeley have made a groundbreaking development creating microfluidic devices in plastics, bridging the fabrication process from lab to commercial manufacturing. Utilizing hot embossing, a new fabrication methodology has been developed for embedding metallic microelectrodes in thermoplastic microfluidic devices. Microelectrodes are first fabricated on steel wafers by means of photolithographic techniques and electrode position, and then transferred to the plastic using hot embossing. The unique shape of the microelectrodes provides self-anchoring mechanisms that ensure structural stability and reliability of the devices. A wide variety of thermoplastics can be used in this process, including polycarbonate, polymethylmethacrylate, cyclic olefin copolymer, and others. Moreover, this technique can be combined with embedded silicon-based sensors providing the necessary connectronics and access to the miniaturized biological or physical sample. With this rapid fabrication method for microfluidic prototypes it is possible to scale the fabrication to a large series of devices easily, shortening the transition of current research to commercial microfluidic devices and revolutionizing current production practices.

Chemical-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor

Conventional metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) technology consists of a source, drain, gate, and substrate. The chemical field-effect transistor (chemFET) is a type of a field-effect transistor acting as a chemical sensor, and is similar to MOSFET except for the gate structures. Modern industrial players seek higher-sensitivity technologies which are small, durable, efficient, and versatile. Further advances in these materials and structures could enable many new kinds of layered semiconductors and devices. To address need, researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, have developed chemical-sensitive field-effect transistor (CS-FET) platform technology. By exploiting selective thin films incorporated into the CS-FET, researchers have created chemical sensors with commercial promise in terms of chemical-versatility and low-power. 

A Thin Film Vls Semiconductor Growth Process

A team of Berkeley Lab researchers has invented the first vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth technology yielding III-V photovoltaics. The photovoltaics achieve 25% power conversion efficiency at a cost significantly lower than current approaches due to the non-epitaxial processing approach and high material utilization rate. The films have grain sizes of 100-200 microns (100 times larger than yielded from conventional growth processes), minority carrier lifetimes up to 2.5 nanoseconds and electron mobilities reaching 500 cm2/V-s. Under one-sun equivalent illumination, an open circuit voltage of up to 930 mV can be reached, just 40 mV lower than measured on a single crystal wafer. Berkeley Lab researchers fabricated continuous thin films of polycrystalline indium phosphide (InP) directly on metal foils by, first, depositing an indium (In) thin film directly on molybdenum (Mo) foil. Next, they deposit a thin capping layer to prevent dewetting of the indium from the substrate during subsequent high temperature processing steps. The resulting stack (Mo – In – capping layer) is then heated in the presence of phosphorous precursors causing supersaturation of the liquid indium with phosphorous, followed by precipitation of InP, thus turning all the In into InP. III-V photovoltaics deliver the highest power conversion efficiencies, but significant processing costs (expensive materials and equipment, low precursor utilization rate) have limited their use. Berkeley Lab’s non-epitaxial growth technology overcomes these limitations to deliver a promising low cost solar cell.

Novel Porous Organic Polymers for Ammonia Adsorption

Ammonia is used in many industrial and commercial applications, for example in the manufacture of fertilizers and cleaners.  However, ammonia is toxic at high concentrations and, therefore, safe storage and transportation of ammonia is required. In addition, trace amounts of ammonia in the atmosphere contaminate and interfere with certain industrial processes, such as semiconductor fabrication, which requires ultra-pure air. Proper ammonia management includes the adsorption of the gas under each of these pressure regimes: high-pressure adsorption for safe storage and transportation and low-pressure adsorption for the removal of trace contaminants from the ambient air. Current methods of adsorption include simple salts, such as MgCl2, but these are not efficient for low-pressure adsorption and furthermore their ammonia cycle is inefficient, requiring significant heat exchange and large changes in volume. Investigators at UC Berkeley have developed a novel polymer for ammonia adsorption that uses acidic materials placed in a spatial arrangement that allows for cooperative adsorption. This not only increases the efficiency of adsorption but also is effective at both high-pressure and low-pressure ammonia adsorption, resulting in multiple applications of the technology. 

Pyroelectric MEMS Infrared Sensor with Numerous Wavelength Absorptions

In recent years, gas sensors for industrial applications have experienced great advances through rapid evolution of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). As a result of increased government legislative pressure on industrial health and safety, commercial customers are demanding integrated smart sensor technology and systems which leverage MEMS for small footprint, low cost, and high-performance features. Market researchers suggest double-digit compound annual growth rates for MEMS sensors through 2018, with the fastest growth is expected in the semiconductor sensor base. Traditional infrared gas analyzers determine the absorption of an emitted infrared light source through a certain air sample. Nondispersive infrared technology (NDIR) detects certain gas by detecting the absorption of infrared wavelengths that is characteristic of that gas. NDIR detectors are the industry standard method of measuring the concentration of carbon oxides. Researchers at UC Berkeley and Davis have successfully demonstrated pyroelectric infrared detectors that exhibit high sensitivity and reliable performance for advanced gas analyses. The MEMS technology is well suited for constant monitoring in harsh environments where long term stability is important, such as petroleum, medical, and industrial monitoring settings.

MEMS-Based Charge Pump

The reduction of power supply voltage with each new generation of CMOS technology continues to complicate the design of charge pumps needed for high voltage applications that integrate into systems alongside transistor chips -- such as the increasing number of MEMS-based gyroscopes, timing oscillators, and gas sensors. Moreover, the aggressive scaling in CMOS resulting in lower dielectric and junction breakdown voltages has compelled the use of customized CMOS processes -- including increased gate oxide thickness and/or added deep-n-wells. Clearly, advances in transistor technology are moving in the opposite direction of the needs of high voltage MEMS applications. To address this trend, researchers at UC Berkeley have developed a MEMS-based charge pump. This design avoids the turn-on voltage and breakdown limitation of CMOS. With much higher breakdown voltages than transistor counterparts, the demonstrated MEMS charge pump implementation should eventually allow voltages higher than 50V desired for capacitive-gap transduced resonators that currently dominate the commercial MEMS-based timing market.

Micro Electromechanical Switch Design with Self Aligning and Sub-Lithographic Properties

Shrinking of integrated circuit (IC) device dimensions provides for enhanced functionality and performance  of computers and electronics. Researchers at Berkeley are exploring nano-mechanical information processing as a means to overcome the energy-efficiency limits of CMOS technology and recently have directed their efforts toward the development of device designs suitable for implementation in the cross-point array architecture for minimal footprint.  To that end, our researchers have designed a novel process for fabricating ultimately scaled electro-mechanical relays with decananometer lateral dimensions. Their innovation includes a compact electro-mechanical switch design which has self-aligned features with a minimum dimension not defined lithographically. By incorporating multiple sets of output electrodes, the area required to implement a complex logic gate is reduced by a factor of 2. 


Berkeley researchers have designed a methodology to solve in real-time linear programming (LP) problems with an analog circuit. Despite continued advancement of digital computers, the task of solving LP in very short times (e.g. 1 MHz for MPC based control of fast systems) remains challenging. Due to lack of temporal overlap between analog computation and MPC, there have been few investigations in applying analog computation towards MPC problems or LP problems. Using this technology, solution to real-time optimization problems can be achieved at 6 microseconds and ongoing work aims to reduce it to a few nanoseconds, which is lower than any current method known to our investigators.Possible applications of the new methodology are fast and power-efficient analog signal processing (e.g. Kalman filter), image processing (e.g. optical flow, mathematical morphology) and advanced control (e.g. model predictive control). Applications in automotive industry:The ability to find a solution for an optimization problem in fast and reliable manner serves well the need to design efficient and reliable vehicles.  An analog optimization circuit, besides being faster than a digital counterpart, can be used in safety-critical systems, since it has a predictable and continuous behavior.  The new circuit for analog optimization is significantly faster and simpler than previously known analog approaches. Therefore, this technology enables to design systems that are either faster or cheaper than the existing ones. The technology is broadly applicable in the automotive industry, since fast, reliable and power efficient embedded computing is required in many vehicle systems. Potential applications include the following fields: 1.      Very fast Model Predictive Control (MPC) systems.   2.      Low level image processing:  Examples include optical flow or edge detection. 3.      Signal processing embedded in the sensor e.g. Kalman filter. 

Wafer Level Chip Scale Packaging Technology For Integrated Mems Devices

Integrated microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) packaging process at the waver-level scale is an important technology for various devices. For example, in a MEMS accelerometer, the central sensor is a free-standing microstructure and it is desirable to protect this sensor. Moreover, it may be necessary for some MEMS devices to encapsulate the microstructures in vacuum environment for applications such as resonant accelerometers or gyroscopes. While many efforts have shown the successful fabrication of encapsulations for MEMS devices, creating an encapsulation membrane spanning several millimeters in width is challenging. One issue relates to the sacrificial layer below the encapsulation membrane which must be etched away with etching holes and these holes must be sealed during the encapsulation process. Another problem pertains to the membrane which must be made strong enough so that it does not collapse on the MEMS structures inside the cavity. In addition to these challenges, processing time for the thin films must be reasonably fast. To address these problems, researchers at UC Berkeley and Toshiba have developed devices and methods for fast, large-scale integration of semiconductor elements, resulting in a chip-scale package having a thin-film hollow-seal structure for MEMS elements.

Miniature Diamond Gyroscope

The primary application for gyroscopes is in navigation.  While the currently available gyroscopes have important applications, these are limited due to large size, and sensitivity to temperature.To meet these challenges, investigators at University of California at Berkeley have developed a miniature diamond gyroscope, based on nitrogen vacancy centers in diamonds. This miniature diamond gyroscope extend the capabilities of existing technology by enabling gyroscopes of very small sizes.  The miniature diamond gyroscope provides new technique for sensing rotations based on the negatively-charged nitrogen-vacancy NV center in diamond.  The key advantages of this technology is that it is all-solid-state, operates over a wide range of temperatures.  The active part of the sensor is very small, on the scale of 1 cubic millimeter.  The sensitivity under optimal conditions is comparable to or better than other large scale gyroscope technologies. Publication- http://arxiv.org/abs/1205.0093,

A Zero-Power, High Throughput Micro, Nanoparticle Printing Via Gravity-Surface Tension Mediated Formation Of Picoliter-Scale Droplets

Current approaches to print micro and nanoparticles are promising, but have serious limitations to commercial applications. These methods require high power consumption and have complicated and costly set-up. These systems are low-throughput, have limited pattern size and resolution-tunability, and difficult alignment. In response to these challenges, investigators at University of California at Berkeley have developed zero-power nanoparticle printing system. This system uses gravity and surface tension to generate and print picoliter-scale droplets for high-throughput, size-tunable printing of micro, nanoparticle assemblies. High-throughput, picoliter-scale droplets are printed by a single step, contact-transferring of the droplets through microporous nanomembrane of a printing head. Rapid evaporative self-assembly of the particles on a hydrophobic surface leads to printing a large array of various microparticles and nanoparticles assemblies of tunable sizes and resolutions. With this technology, continuous printing of single type particles and multiplex printing of various types of particles with accurate alignment are successfully performed. As a demonstration of this innovation, the investigators have produced size-tunable, uniform large arrays of gold nanoparticle assemblies for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) are created. Strong and uniform (<10% variation) SERS signals were obtained and the signal is tunable by controlling the pattern sizes. Also, the superb uniformity of the printed patterns is demonstrated in a quantitative manner. This technology offers a straightforward, efficient methodology to manufacture nanophotonic and nanoelectrical devices in a controllable way with low power and material consumption.

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