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Charged Membranes Incorporated With Porous Polymer Frameworks

Ion-exchange membranes have been established for a variety of industrial applications, including energy and environmental technologies related to water treatment, fuel cells, and flow batteries. However, the limited tunability and adverse ion permeability-selectivity tradeoff exhibited by traditional ion-exchange membranes limit their development. To address this limitation, researchers at UC Berkeley developed a new class of composite ion-exchange membrane materials incorporated with highly tunable porous aromatic frameworks (PAFs). The Berkeley researchers show that an assortment of PAF variants can be easily embedded into charged membranes, where the choice of PAF filler can be used to optimize the physical, ion transport, and adsorptive properties of the membrane according to their targeted application. Material characterizations indicate that numerous charged membranes embedded with PAFs exhibit excellent dispersibility, interfacial compatibility, structural flexibility, and pH stability. Proton conductivity and water uptake measurements also indicate that the exceptionally high porosity of PAFs enhances ion diffusion in membranes, while abundant, favorable PAF-polymer interactions decrease non-selective swelling pathways typically observed in highly charged ion-exchange membranes. Furthermore, adsorption experiments demonstrate that ion-selective PAFs can be embedded into charged membranes to tune the ion selectivity of the membrane and also enable their use as membrane adsorbents. Test show promise for technology to improve the general performance and tunability of ion-exchange membrane technologies.

Multifunctional Separations Using Adsorbent-Based Membranes

The selective separation of trace components of interest from various mixtures (e.g., micropollutants from groundwater, lithium or uranium from seawater, carbon dioxide from air) presents an especially pressing technological challenge. Established materials and separation processes seldom meet the performance standards needed to efficiently isolate these trace species for proper disposal or re-use. To address this issue, researchers at UC Berkeley developed a novel separation strategy in which highly selective and tunable adsorbents or adsorption sites are embedded into membranes. In this approach, the minor target species are selectively captured by the embedded adsorbents or adsorption sites while the species transport through the membrane. Simultaneously, the mixture can be purified through traditional membrane separation mechanisms. As a proof-of-concept, the researchers incorporated Hg2+-selective adsorbents into electrodialysis membranes that can simultaneously capture Hg2+ via an adsorption mechanism while desalinating water through an electrodialysis mechanism. Adsorption studies demonstrated that the embedded adsorbents maintain rapid, selective, regenerable, and high-capacity Hg2+ binding capabilities within the membrane matrix. Furthermore, when inserted into an electrodialysis setup, the composite membranes successfully capture all Hg2+ from various Hg2+-spiked water sources while permeating all other competing cations to simultaneously enable desalination. Finally, using an array of other ion-selective adsorbents, the Berkeley team showed that this strategy can in principle be applied generally to any target ion present in any water source. This multifunctional separation strategy can be applied to existing membrane processes to efficiently capture targeted species of interest, without the need for additional expensive equipment or processes such as fixed-bed adsorption columns.

Design Random Heteropolymer To Transport Proton Selectively And Rapidly

Despite decades of effort, it remains challenging, if not impossible, to achieve similar transport performance similar to natural channels. Inspired by the known crystal structures of transmembrane channel proteins, protein sequence-structure-transport relationships have been applied to guide material design. However, producing both molecularly defined channel sizes and channel lumen surfaces that are chemically diverse and spatially heterogeneous have been out of reach. We show that a 4-monomer-based random heteropolymer (RHP) exhibits selective proton transport at a rate similar to those of natural proton channels. Statistical control over the monomer distribution in the RHP leads to well-modulated segmental heterogeneity in hydrophobicity, which facilitates the single RHP chains to insert into lipid bilayers. This in turn produces rapid and selective proton transport, despite the sequence variability among RHP chains. We have demonstrated the importance of:the adaptability enabled by the statistical similaritythe modularity afforded by monomer chemical diversity to achieve uniform behavior in heterogeneous systems. 

Single Conjugative Vector for Genome Editing by RNA-guided Transposition

The inventors have constructed conjugative plasmids for intra- and inter-species delivery and expression of RNA-guided CRISPR-Cas transposases for organism- and site-specific genome editing by targeted transposon insertion. This invention enables integration of large, customizable DNA segments (encoded within a transposon) into prokaryotic genomes at specific locations and with low rates of off-target integration.

Compact Ion Gun for Ion Trap Surface Treatment in Quantum Information Processing Architectures

Electromagnetic noise from surfaces is one of the limiting factors for the performance of solid state and trapped ion quantum information processing architectures. This noise introduces gate errors and reduces the coherence time of the systems. Accordingly, there is great commercial interest in reducing the electromagnetic noise generated at the surface of these systems.Surface treatment using ion bombardment has shown to reduce electromagnetic surface noise by two orders of magnitude. In this procedure ions usually from noble gasses are accelerated towards the surface with energies of 300eV to 2keV. Until recently, commercial ion guns have been repurposed for surface cleaning. While these guns can supply the ion flux and energy required to prepare the surface with the desired quality, they are bulky and limit the laser access, making them incompatible with the requirements for ion trap quantum computing.To address this limitation, UC Berkeley researchers have developed an ion gun that enables in-situ surface treatment without sacrificing high optical access, enabling in situ use with a quantum information processor.

Low Band Gap Graphene Nanoribbon Electronic Devices

This invention creates a new graphene nanoribbons (GNR)-based transistor technology capable of pushing past currently projected limits in the operation of digital electronics for combining high current (i.e. high speed) with low-power and high on/off ratio. The inventors describe the design and synthesis of molecular precursors for low band gap armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) featuring a width of N=11 and N=15 carbon atoms, their growth into AGNRs, and their integration into functional electronic devices (e.g. transistors). N is the number of carbon atoms counted in a chain across the width and perpendicular to the long axis of the ribbon.

Scalable Super-Resolution Synthesis Of Core-Vest Composites Assisted By Surface Plasmons

Concurrent control of size, shape, and composition of nanoparticles is key to tuning their functionality with widespread applications in sensing, catalysis, cancer cell ablation, water-splitting, spectroscopy, dye-sensitized solar cells, and more. UCB inventors demonstrate unprecedented precision over the structure and composition of complex nanoparticles by fusing colloidal chemistry with plasmon assisted synthesis.  They show that combining properties of light used for plasmon excitation (wavelength, intensity, and pulse-duration) with the physical properties of nanoparticles (size, shape, and composition) leads to hitherto unrealized core-vest composite nanostructures. Tunable variations in localized temperature distributions >50 degrees C are achieved over nanoparticles as small as 50-100 nm. These temperature variations result in core-vest formations with selective shell coverage that mirrors the local inhomogeneities of the heat distribution. This new class of core-vest nanoparticles (CVNs) allows plasmonic enhancement of nanocomposite functionalities that are inaccessible in typical core-shell geometries.  

Gene Delivery Into Mature Plants Using Carbon Nanotubes

96 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Current methods of biomolecule delivery to mature plants are limited due to the presence of plant cell wall, and are additionally hampered by low transfection efficiency, high toxicity of the transfection material, and host range limitation. For this reason, transfection is often limited to protoplast cultures where the cell wall is removed, and not to the mature whole plant.  Unfortunately, protoplasts are not able to regenerate into fertile plants, causing these methods to have low practical applicability. Researchers at the University of California have developed a method for delivery of genetic materials into mature plant cells within a fully-developed mature plant leaf, that is species-independent. This method utilizes a nano-sized delivery vehicle for targeted and passive transport of biomolecules into mature plants of any plant species. The delivery method is inexpensive, easy, and robust, and can transfer biomolecules into all phenotypes of any plant species with high efficiency and low toxicity.

Direct Optical Visualization Of Graphene On Transparent Substrates

96 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} The ∼10% optical contrast of graphene on specialized substrates like oxide-capped silicon substrates, together with the high-throughput and noninvasive features of optical microscopy, have greatly facilitated the use and research of graphene research for the past decade.  However, substantially lower contrast is obtained on transparent substrates. Visualization of nanoscale defects in graphene, e.g., voids, cracks, wrinkles, and multilayers, formed during either growth or subsequent transfer and fabrication steps, represents yet another level of challenge for most device substrates.     UC Berkeley researchers have developed a facile, label-free optical microscopy method to directly visualize graphene on transparent inorganic and polymer substrates at 30−40% image contrast per graphene layer.  Their noninvasive approach overcomes typical challenges associated with transparent substrates, including insulating and rough surfaces, enables unambiguous identification of local graphene layer numbers and reveals nanoscale structures and defects with outstanding contrast and throughput. We thus demonstrate in situ monitoring of nanoscale defects in graphene, including the generation of nano-cracks under uniaxial strain, at up to 4× video rate.  

Nanostructured Metal Oxide Sensing Film From Liquid Precursor

Nanostructured metal oxide materials have generated much interest for sensing applications due to their high surface area, low thermal mass, and superior performance.  However, stable and reproducible integration of these materials into a functional sensor is difficult. Vacuum deposition techniques such as sputtering or evaporation do not offer substantial sensing performance improvement. Sacrificial templating steps have been suggested, but the manufacturing complexity and cost are not suitable for high volume production. There remains a need for a simple, effective method to prepare nanostructured metal oxide films for low power, miniaturized gas sensors with high sensitivity.   Researchers at UC Berkeley have developed a novel method for creating highly porous, nanostructured metal oxide film in a controlled location from a liquid precursor using a localized heat source. This method eliminates processing steps, such as the need to separately synthesize nanomaterials and suspend them into a stable ink for deposition. The localized heat source acts to both evaporate the solvent and thermally decompose the precursor into a highly porous film of nanocrystalline metal oxide, as well as to define the location of the formed film. The utility of this method has been demonstrated for the formation of a tin oxide gas sensor with superior performance, including high sensitivity and fast response and recovery time for carbon monoxide gas. However, the method could be useful for other applications that require localized formation of a porous film of nanocrystalline metal oxide.   

An Ultra-Sensitive Method for Detecting Molecules

To-date, plasmon detection methods have been utilized in the life sciences, electrochemistry, chemical vapor detection, and food safety. While passive surface plasmon resonators have lead to high-sensitivity detection in real time without further contaminating the environment with labels. Unfortunately, because these systems are passively excited, they are intrinsically limited by a loss of metal, which leads to decreased sensitivity. Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley have developed a novel method to detect distinct molecules in air under normal conditions to achieve sub-parts per billion detection limits, the lowest limit reported. This device can be used detecting a wide array of molecules including explosives or bio molecular diagnostics utilizing the first instance of active plasmon sensor, free of metal losses and operating deep below the diffraction limit for visible light.  This novel detection method has been shown to have superior performance than monitoring the wavelength shift, which is widely used in passive surface plasmon sensors. 

Stimuli-Sensitive Intrinsically Disordered Protein Brushes

Recent advances in biomedicine and biotechnology are driving the demand for novel surface functionalization platforms for biologically active molecules. Polymer brush coatings form when macromolecular chains are end-tethered to surfaces at high grafting densities. While there have been notable successes integrating polymer brush coatings with proteins to control biological function, such strategies require covalent conjugation of the protein to the polymer, which can be inefficient and can compromise biological function. Moreover, these polymer brushes almost universally feature synthetic polymers, which are often heterogeneous and do not readily allow incorporation of chemical functionalities at precise sites along the constituent chains. To address these challenges, Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley (UCB) conducted experiments with polymer brushes based on nerve cell neurofilaments as the intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). By cloning a portion of a gene that encodes one of the neurofilament bristles, and re-engineering it such that they could attach the resulting protein to surfaces, UCB investigators have developed a biomimetic, recombinant IDP that can assemble into an environment-sensitive protein brush that swells and collapses dramatically with environmental changes in solution pH and ionic strength. Their research demonstrates that stimuli-responsive brushes can be efficiently integrated with proteins without compromising biological function, which could have broad commercial appeal as a new class of smart biomaterial building blocks.

System And Methods For Fabricating Boron Nitride Nanostructures

A research team led by Alex Zettl has developed a variable pressure, powder/gas/liquid injection inductively coupled plasma system that is used to produce high quality boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) at continuous rates of 35 g/hour.  For example, in this system, boron powder is introduced to a directed flow of plasma and boron nitride nanostructures are formed in a chamber. This system can produce collapsed BN nanotubes (nanoribbons) and closed shell BN capsules (nanococoons).  The system is also adaptable to a large variety of feedstock materials.

Methods to Produce Ultra-Thin Copper Nanowires for Transparent Conductors

The disclosure provides innovative synthesis methods to produce uniform, ultrathin and high-quality metal nanostructures. In certain embodiments, the synthesis methods disclosed herein are solution based, therefore affording scalability and allowing for the production of metal nanostructures (e.g. Cu-nanowires ) that can have varying diameters, e.g., between 1 nm to 70 nm. The resulting metal nanostructures can be used to construct transparent electrodes that have lower costs, better transparency, and superior flexibility in comparison to conventional metal-oxide conductors, such as indium tin oxide (ITO) .

Hybrid Porous Nanowires for Electrochemical Energy Storage

Supercapacitors are attractive energy storage devices due to their high-power capabilities and robust cycle lifetimes.   “Super” capacitors are named in part because the electrodes are composed of materials with high specific surface area and the distance between the electrode and electrochemical double layer is very small compared to standard capacitors.  A variety of porous silicon nanowires have been developed for use as supercapacitors electrodes by maximizing the specific surface area of active materials.  Although the use of Si is attractive due to its wide-spread adoption by microelectronics industry and due to its abundance, Si nanowires are highly reactive and dissolve rapidly when exposed to mild saline solutions.  Previously, silicon carbide thin films were used to protect the porous silicon nanowires, but the coatings were 10’s of nm thick and while they successfully mitigated Si degradation during electrochemical cycling in aqueous electrolytes, they also resulted in pore blockage and a large decrease in energy storage potential.   Researchers at UC Berkeley have developed methods and materials to improve porous silicon nanowires by overcoming the above limitations.  The resulting nanowires have an ultrathin carbon coating preserving the pore structure while mitigating Si degradation.  The resulting supercapacitor electrodes have the highest capacitance (and hence energy storage) per projected area to date.   

A Drift-Corrected, High-Resolution Optical Trap

Optical trapping systems are commercially available through several companies. In these systems, the optical trap precision relies on the passive stability of the instrument itself, and therefore demands costly engineering solutions to limit environmental noise that can be coupled into the optomechanical components. Consequently, high-resolution measurements are not possible in common biological laboratory settings that typically lack appropriate vibration isolation and temperature stability.  Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley have developed an invention that addresses a critical problem currently limiting the performance of high-resolution optical traps: that the mechanical drift of optical components often results in physical drift in the location of an optical trap that obscures the displacement-of-interest. The motion of biological motor proteins that are specific to interacting with DNA often take steps along the double helix that is on the order of 0.3 nanometers in size. Accurate measurement of displacements on this scale requires that drift of the trap positions be limited to no more than a few angstroms. However, the current best-performing optical traps suffer from instrumental drift that is almost twice what can be tolerated. Owing to the critical role of these components in all optical trapping systems, and the previously undetectable levels of mechanical drift they undergo, we sought to measure the trap drift with angstrom-level precision using a new approach. This new approach has successfully measured for and corrected for the mechanical drift of these components and demonstrated that this novel invention is capable of consistently reducing the noise floor to levels that have not previously been accomplished.       

Growth Factor Sequestering and Presenting Hydrogels

0 0 1 96 540 UC Berkeley 10 4 632 14.0 Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} The encapsulation of stem cells in a hydrogel substrate provides a promising future in biomedical applications. However, communications between hydrogels and stem cells is complicated, for example, factors such as porosity, different polymer types, stiffness, compatibility and degradation will lead to stem cell survival or death. Hydrogels mimic the three-dimensional extracellular matrix to provide a friendly environment for stem cells.   UC Berkeley researchers have developed hydrogel cell matrices for the support, growth, and differentiation of a stem cell or progenitor cell and methods for making such hydrogel cell matrices.

A Zero-Power, High Throughput Micro, Nanoparticle Printing Via Gravity-Surface Tension Mediated Formation Of Picoliter-Scale Droplets

Current approaches to print micro and nanoparticles are promising, but have serious limitations to commercial applications. These methods require high power consumption and have complicated and costly set-up. These systems are low-throughput, have limited pattern size and resolution-tunability, and difficult alignment. In response to these challenges, investigators at University of California at Berkeley have developed zero-power nanoparticle printing system. This system uses gravity and surface tension to generate and print picoliter-scale droplets for high-throughput, size-tunable printing of micro, nanoparticle assemblies. High-throughput, picoliter-scale droplets are printed by a single step, contact-transferring of the droplets through microporous nanomembrane of a printing head. Rapid evaporative self-assembly of the particles on a hydrophobic surface leads to printing a large array of various microparticles and nanoparticles assemblies of tunable sizes and resolutions. With this technology, continuous printing of single type particles and multiplex printing of various types of particles with accurate alignment are successfully performed. As a demonstration of this innovation, the investigators have produced size-tunable, uniform large arrays of gold nanoparticle assemblies for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) are created. Strong and uniform (<10% variation) SERS signals were obtained and the signal is tunable by controlling the pattern sizes. Also, the superb uniformity of the printed patterns is demonstrated in a quantitative manner. This technology offers a straightforward, efficient methodology to manufacture nanophotonic and nanoelectrical devices in a controllable way with low power and material consumption.

Nano-Aggregate Thin-Film Ultracapacitor Module (N-Atum)

To meet the needs of future power generation and distribution, energy storage devices with both high energy and power density are required; a need not met by current super/ultracapacitors which have very high power density, but energy densities one order less than conventional batteries.  Investigators at University of California at Berkeley have taken an innovative approach to meeting these needs by quantum size effects to substantially boost the particle dielectric constant and breakdown strength.  The investigators use a nanoaggregate/composite with a high K and high breakdown strength in the ultracapcitor in order to achieve both high energy and high power density.  The nanocomposite is created by bonding monodisperse core shell nanoparticles with radii <10 nm in a high breakdown strength polymer (ex. PVDF).  This nanocomposite is integrated into a novel, interdigitated electrode configuration to create batch scale manufacturable ultracapacitor cells with equal or superior energy density to that of lithium ion batteries (100 Wh/kg).  This ultracapacitor modules are being developed for multiple applications from powering portable electronics to hybrid vehicles to energy storage for power plants, especially alternative energy storage (solar, wind, etc.).

Metal And Metal Core, Oxide Shell Nanoparticles

Synthesis of nanoparticles of the reactive metal variety are quite difficult to control and often difficult to scale-up in production. To meet this challenge, investigators at University of California at Berkeley have synthesized nanoparticles of both a metal and semiconductor nature using a novel method. This new synthesis method employing covalent bonding schemes to strongly bond multiple reactive metals directly to a carbon molecule of the ligand while retaining a high level of ambient environment stability, which is problematic with current synthesis schemes for reactive metals. Using this innovation, the length of the ligand can be tailored to gain better passivation and conductivity (or semiconductive properties) from the particles. The metal and metal core, oxide shell nanoparticles have broad applications from ambient stable nanoparticle transistors to stable quantum dots for cellular and single molecule imaging. These reactive metals (ex. aluminum, germanium) are normally not employed at such size scales not due to the lack of applicability, but to the lack of control over the synthesis process and stability, especially in ambient environments. In many cases such reactive metals are far better suited to energy storage, collection, imaging, etc. than currently used species such as gold, silver, CdSe and CdTe, but due to current ease of synthesis and stability, they are not used.

Direct Patterning Of Materials By Microcapillary Molding

Traditional nanoimprint lithography is a simple and versatile method for producing devices with a large range of possible feature sizes. Within this class of methods, direct nanoimprinting has been used to pattern materials that are suspended in solvents directly, allowing for simple deposition and patterning of materials on substrates with low waste. However, this direct nanoimprinting process inevitably leaves a residual layer that must be etched away in subsequent steps, adding complexity to the process, and often results in features with non-uniform aspect ratios. Investigators at the University of California at Berkeley are addressing these challenges by developing a microfabrication method that allows for the direct patterning of materials on a variety of substrates using microcapillaries. This very simple patterning method results in features with a controllable aspect ratio and zero residual layer. First, a bare solvent or secondary fluid is spread on the substrate. A soft, porous elastomer mold, patterned using traditional photolithography, is pressed on the substrate to pattern the fluid. A nanoparticle ink or other functional or structural material is introduced to the resulting microcapillaries through dedicated filling ports and flows into the microcapillaries as the bare solvent or secondary fluid evaporates though the porous mold. The nanoparticle ink or dissolved material self-concentrates as the solvent evaporates, eventually leaving only the patterned material on the substrate.

Nanoneedle Plasmonic Photodetectors And Solar Cells

The invention is about an extremely efficient photodiode and solar cell using a novel nanoneedle structure to create a large internal field for electron-hole amplification and collection, and a plasmonic antenna for optical field enhancement.  Both of which work together to result in an extremely high efficiency. Investigators at UCB have demonstrated one version of this detector in the format of an avalanche photodetector (APD) based upon a crystalline GaAs nanostructure in the shape of a very sharp nanoneedle (NN) and incorporating a core-shell p-n junction for light detection. The tapered NN shape, high NN aspect ratio, and small NN dimension together allow a low bias voltage to produce a high electric field sufficient for current multiplication for high sensitivity. NN APDs also have an extremely high operation speed due to the reduced capacitance comimg from the small NN dimensions. The catalyst-free, low-temperature growth mode of the GaAs NNs also enables the integration to the as-fabricated Si CMOS devices as well as other crystalline or amorphous substrates.

Nanowire-based Chemical Connector for Miniature-Scale Applications

At millimeter dimensions or less, conventional mechanical, electrostatic, and magnetic connectors (e.g. buttons, zippers, Velcro, etc) encounter performance and reliability degradation that is problematic for applications that require specific binding of miniaturized components.  Moreover, while universal adhesives (e.g. tapes, glues, and synthetic gecko-inspired adhesives -- see B00-046) enable efficient binding at miniature dimensions, these universal adhesives don't support connector applications that need reversible and specific binding between components (as opposed to permanent and universal binding). To address those needs, researchers at UC Berkeley have developed a new type of chemical connector based on nanowires.  The nanowire connectors enable highly specific and versatile binding of components, and they have unique properties that are tunable through composition control of the nanowire components. 

Microfluidic Reagent Delivery System By Hydrogel Dehydration Through A Porous Encapsulant

  Microfluidic constructs have proven to have many important applications. Small sample sizes can be sufficient to give a large number of laboratory results, for instance, in "lab-on-a-chip" technologies, such as those developed by Caliper. Testing and processing previously available only in specialized laboratories under highly controlled conditions with expert technicians are now available for field work using these new technologies. However, these highly minimized fluid managing devices are typically very expensive, and so are of limited availability to many potential applications. Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley achieve patterned Agarose micro-structures using photolithography and oxygen plasma. The resulting Agarose micro-structures can be then rehydrated back into the original form, if the proper conditions are maintained during processing.   Related to B09-061 and B09-058 

Methods for Selective Processing of Semiconductor Nanowires by Polarized Visible Radiation

Nanowires are drawing tremendous interest due to their unique properties like high surface to volume ratio and dimensionality. Advances in nanowire assembly techniques have enabled devices based on nanowires to be realized. Doping of silicon nanowires is required for the fabrication of electronic devices incorporating semiconducting nanowires. One problem with doping involves accurate alignment and positioning of the appropriately doped regions of the nanowires to build functional devices using currently known assembly techniques can be extremely cumbersome. Ion-implantation allows precise control of the amount of introduced dopants and the location of suitably doped portions of nanowires.  However, ion implantation can damage the crystalline lattice of nanowires, which may require a high temperature annealing step to repair, and such high temperature processing can further damage the substrates, such as plastic substrates. To address these problems, researchers at UC Berkeley have developed methods for enabling the processing of nanowires on temperature sensitive substrates, without the damage to the nanowires and substrates that can result using conventional processing techniques.

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