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Highly Efficient, Heterogeneous, Hybrid-Integrated Optoelectronic Device Structure with Conductive and Low Loss Interface

Researchers at the University of California Davis have developed a fabrication technique that allows conductive wafer bonding between heterogeneous semiconductor materials with low optical losses and low electrical losses (low voltage and resistance).

High-Efficiency, Mirrorless Non-Polar and Semi-Polar Light Emitting Devices

An (Al, Ga, In)N light emitting device in which high light generation efficiency occurs by fabricating the device using non-polar or semi-polar GaN crystals.

Two And Three Dimensional DNA Antenna And Photonic Transfer Nanostructures

Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) is a mechanism which describes the photonic energy transfer between two light-sensitive molecules (chromophores). A donor chromophore, initially in its electronic excited state, may transfer energy in the form of undetectable virtual photons to an acceptor chromophore. FRET has been widely used to study the structure and dynamic of biomolecules. Specifically, by using dyes conjugated on a DNA strand, FRET can be applied to molecular sensors in which fluorescence signals change as a result of altered distance between donor and acceptor chromophores due to hybridization or enzymatic reactions. In addition, the DNA strand can act as a photonic wire along which the photonic energy is transferred. However, because fluorescence is highly influenced by environmental conditions and surrounding molecules, the energy transfer from a donor dye conjugated on a DNA strand is easily quenched by the dye-DNA and dye-dye interaction, often lowering FRET efficiency to the acceptor dye. Furthermore, when multiple chromophore/fluorescent donors and acceptor groups/entities are arranged on 2D and 3D DNA structures, contact and other quenching mechanisms can occur which greatly reduce the long range FRET efficiency. This rapid loss of long distance FRET efficiency greatly reduces the viability of DNA based photonic wires and antennas and negates any useful or practical applications. Therefore quenching should be resolved in order to apply the molecular FRET system to the device fabrication with efficient energy transfer.

Adaptive optics with direct wavefront sensing for multi-photon microscope

Biological tissue are rarely transparent, presenting major challenges for deep tissue optical microscopy. With the advantages of high-resolution and viewing of live organisms, optical microscopy has become an important tool for biological research and continues to open new avenues in its capabilities. In recent years, image resolution and speed has been dramatically improved.  However the improvement of the resolution and penetration depth for optical microscopy is still in its infancy. As light passes through biological tissue, it can be absorbed, refracted and scattered, limiting the resolution and depth of optical imaging in biological tissues. Overcoming these challenges will benefit a wide range of applications from basic biological research to clinical investigations.

Magnetically Tunable Photonic Crystals Based On Anisotropic Nanostructures

Background: Many companies are venturing into new ways to improve paint technology. Current paramagnetic paint can be applied on anything from building interiors to vehicles so that the color can easily change when electric currents are applied. This nanomaterial paint market is projected to grow to $1.4B by 2017 with many notable end users in the display, chemical and automotive industries.  Brief Description: UCR researchers have discovered photonic crystals that can be tuned by changing the magnetic field direction. These novel colloidal crystals have magnetic and anisotropic properties that allow them to reach maximum diffraction intensity at certain angles. This could serve as a platform technology since they can take whatever material given and optimize its optical components for assembly into photonic structures.

Technique for the Nitride Growth of Semipolar Thin Films, Heterostructures, and Semiconductor Devices

A method to grow semipolar (Ga, Al, In, B)N thin films, heterostructures, and devices on suitable substrates or planar templates in which a large area of the semipolar film is parallel to the substrate surface. 

Ultra-thin Metamaterial "Carpet Cloak" Design

Brief description not available

Transparent Mirrorless (TML) LEDs

Minimizes the re-absorption of LED light by using transparent conductive oxide electrodes (ITO or ZnO) instead of mirrors. 

A New Method For Improving 3-D Depth Perception

The ability to see depth is a key visual function, as three-dimensional vision is used to guide body movements. Although many visual cues are used to infer spatial relationships, depth perception relies primarily on stereopsis, or the perception of depth based on differences in the images in the two eyes. More than 5% of the US population, however, is unable to see in three dimensions due to stereo-blindness and stereo-anomaly. Without depth perception, basic activities such as catching a ball or driving a car are not possible. Current therapeutic methods to address this issue include a set of eye-training exercises that aim to equalize the input from the eyes to the brain, which are collectively called orthoptics.   Researchers at UC Berkeley have developed an orthoptic method to train stereo depth perception. This method includes devices and systems for implementation, and it can be used in the home. 

An integrated intraoperative diagnosis and therapy catheter system

In traditional cardiology and oncology, disease diagnosis and treatment are traditionally separate procedures resulting in increased costs and delayed treatment, which, in some cases, may increase morbidity. Therefore, a system that can diagnose and treat diseases simultaneously would greatly decrease costs and provide timely treatment, which may prevent death from the disease. Researchers in the Department of Engineering at UC Irvine, in collaboration with researchers at Shanghai Jio Tong University in China have invented a multimodal system for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and cardiac disease. Summary of development The present invention describes an intraoperative imaging and therapy catheter system for the accurate diagnosis and treatment of cancer and cardiac disease. This multimodal medical device combines imaging, cryosurgery, and thermal therapy thereby permitting accurate diagnosis and treatment of vulnerable plaques in blood vessels and various types of cancers. In addition, by adding low cost imaging modalities such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), ultrasound imaging, photoacoustic (PA) imaging, fluorescence imaging and thermal imaging, cryosurgery can be performed with much higher accuracy. Importantly, addition of these imaging systems enables accurate identification of lesion sites, precise depth of cryosurgery/heating probe placement, and the capability to monitor the extent of the freezing/heating process. Furthermore, the invention may include intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) facilitating visualization of cross-sectional images of the vessel wall, entire large lipid pools, and large tumor regions. These parameters are valuable for the guidance of cryoplasty regarding the treatment time, temperature and location.

Compressive Plenoptic Imaging

Better understanding the brain's architecture and the behavior of neural networks requires non-invasive probes capable of monitoring brain activity at the scale of individual neurons.  Functional neuro-imaging methods have the advantage of being minimally invasive and can potentially resolve individual action potentials.  An ideal imaging method would be capable of quantifying many neurons simultaneously, have high spatial and temporal resolution, be non-invasive, and be accurate even in deep layers of brain tissue. There are a variety of current techniques available, many of which use mechanical scanning to reduce the effects of optical scattering and therefore have low temporal resolution. UC Berkeley researchers have developed a device capable of quantitative functional neuro-imaging in the thick brain tissue of live animals. By combining a detection method with algorithmic data processing, this device achieves single neuron resolution and fast sampling rates with high spatial and temporal resolution.  

BRIGHT: Building With Radiant And Insulated Green Harvesting Technology

People spend a large part of the day inside a building for different purposes, e.g. living, working, and shopping. Lighting is one of the largest categories of end-use energy consumption in the commercial sector. In 2014, the Department of Energy reported that approximately 40% of total U.S. energy was consumed in residential and commercial buildings and costing $50 billion each year. Commercial buildings account for over 70% of U.S. electricity use and lighting accounts for approximately 30% of the building use. Traditional approaches have implemented passive or active efficient energy strategies, like electronic ballasts, LED technologies, compact fluorescent lamps, occupancy sensors, and common light bulb standards. One problem is that each of these technologies require a power supply or battery. Another problem is all of these have a lifetime and a replacement cost. To address these challenges, researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, have demonstrated a smart dynamic panel system for capturing and channeling daylight without gains and/or losses of heat and without compromising the structure of the building. The designed translucent panel for building envelopes (i.e. facades and/or roof) is a modular element that can be used as the primary physical separator between the conditioned and unconditioned environment, or can also be used in specific parts of the designed building, or can be used in retrofitting existing buildings. The prototype panel has validated many useful aspects of the innovation including observations that report improvements of around 150-300% in the maximum light that is transmitted with light concentrators and modified optical fiber tips compared to a translucent panel with only embedded optical fibers with flat tips. From the analysis of operational energy, the panel is also shown to reduce the total energy consumption (heating, cooling, lighting, and fans) by 36%, which in turn curtails CO2 emissions by 34%. 

Method for Enhancing Growth of Semipolar Nitride Devices

A method for enhancing the growth of semipolar nitride films using either a buffer layer or a nucleation layer. 

Growth of High-Performance M-plane GaN Optical Devices

A method using MOCVD growth conditions to achieve high performance m-plane GaN optical devices, including LEDs and LDs. 

Optimization of Laser Bar Orientation for Nonpolar Laser Diodes

A method for the growth and fabrication of nonpolar laser diodes. 

Low Capacitance/High Speed Bipolar Phototransistor

The performance of optoelectronic links is very strongly related to the sensitivity of the detector on the receiver end. Conventional receivers include a photodiode whose signal is sent to amplifiers until it is strong enough to be used in microelectronic circuits. The energy cost of amplification is very high and could be significantly reduced if the capacitance of the photodiode and first stage of amplification were smaller. In order to be useful for this application, a phototransistor must have several features: - Low capacitance - High speed - Large photon absorption volume Unfortunately, for conventional bipolar phototransistors, these requirements are contradictory. Indeed the photon absorption length in typical semiconductors is on the order of microns, while the speed requirement only allows transit regions for amplified carriers of a few tens of nanometers at best. This is over a 100x size mismatch. Increasing any other dimension (that is not the transit direction) results in prohibitively high capacitances. This invention offers a solution to these issues consisting of a new kind of semiconductor phototransistor device, which integrates a large PIN-photodiode with a bipolar junction transistor (or Heterojunction Bipolar transistor). 

Nanoscale Imaging

Cathodoluminescence (CL) is used for nanoscale imaging by detecting the light generated in the sample by the application of an electron beam. Direct CL has also been used to image biological samples, but typically causes damage to the sample and can result in poor imaging quality.  Methods which incorporate inorganic cathodoluminescent nanoparticle labels into a biological sample result in less sample damage, but imaging with nanoparticle labels requires the electron beam to penetrate into the sample, which precludes repeated measurements or observations of dynamics. A UC Berkeley researcher has developed an optical imaging system and method for producing nanoscale images with high resolution, images of fragile samples without damaging the samples and that can be used for repeated imaging of a sample which allows observation of sample dynamics.  

Enhanced Stereoscopic 3D Displays

Stereoscopic 3D displays use either temporal or spatial interlacing to send different images to the two eyes of the viewer.  Temporal interlacing delivers images to the left and right eyes alternately in time and has high effective spatial resolution but is prone to temporal artifacts.  Spatial interlacing delivers even pixel rows to one eye and odd rows to the other eye of the viewer simultaneously, however, it is subject to spatial limitations such as reduced spatial resolution.  UC Berkeley researchers have developed a hybrid spatiotemporal-interlacing protocol and found that flicker, motion artifacts, and depth distortion were significantly reduced relative to the temporal-interlacing protocol, and spatial resolution was better than in the spatial-interlacing protocol used in current 3D displays.  Thus, the innovative hybrid display retained the benefits of spatial and temporal interlacing while it minimized or even eliminated the drawbacks. 

High Resolution Depth of Interaction Gamma Radiation Detector

Researchers at UCLA have developed a method for improving the spatial resolution and sensitivity of gamma radiation detection for positron emission tomography (PET).

Near Infrared (NIR) Imaging System and Method For Detection of Maxillary Sinus Infections

Sinusitis is an inflammation, or swelling, of the tissue lining the sinuses. Normally sinuses are filled with air, but when sinuses become blocked and filled with fluid, bacteria, viruses, and fungi can grow leading to infection. In the United States, approximately one in seven people develop sinusitis each year, and 20 million cases of acute bacterial sinusitis become chronic conditions requiring medical treatment. Current management of sinusitis is based on observation of symptoms (primary care settings) or radiation-based CT scans (in specialist settings). However, symptom-based observations do not provide consistent or standardized measurements and CT-scans are too costly, unnecessary in many cases, and inappropriate for primary care settings.

Method And Apparatus For Imaging The Upper Airway During Sleep And Wakefulness

Video imaging probe for imaging the upper airway during sleep.

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